Artistic Metamorphosis 

Fada Legend 

Haitian Revolution


The Haitian Revolution (French: Révolution haïtienne [ʁevɔlysjɔ̃ ajisjɛ̃n]) was a successful anti-slavery and anti-colonial insurrection by self-liberated slaves against Frenchcolonial rule in Saint-Domingue, now the sovereign nation of Haiti. It began on 22 August 1791,[3] and ended in 1804 with the former colony's independence. It involved blacks, mulattoes, French, Spanish, and British participants—with the ex-slave Toussaint L'Ouverture emerging as Haiti's most charismatic hero. It was the only slave uprising that led to the founding of a state which was both free from slavery, and ruled by non-whites and former captives.[4] It is now widely seen as a defining moment in the history of racism in the Atlantic World.[5]

Haiti at the beginning of the Haitian revolution in 1791.

Its effects on the institution of slavery were felt throughout the Americas. The end of French rule and the abolition of slavery in the former colony was followed by a successful defense of the freedoms they won, and, with the collaboration of free persons of color, their independence from white Europeans.[6][7][8] It represents the largest slave uprising since Spartacus's unsuccessful revolt against the Roman Republic nearly 1,900 years earlier.[9] It challenged long-held European beliefs about alleged black inferiority and about enslaved persons' capacity to achieve and maintain their own freedom. The rebels' organizational capacity and tenacity under pressure inspired stories that shocked and frightened slave owners in the hemisphere.[10]



                                                                            Pangaea


the ancient supercontinent, comprising all the present continents joined together, which began to break up about 200 million years ago See also Laurasia, Gondwanaland

Pangaea or Pangea ( /pænˈdʒiːə/[1]) was a supercontinent that existed during the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic eras.[2][3] It assembled from earlier continental units approximately 335 million years ago, and it began to break apart about 175 million years ago.[4] In contrast to the present Earth and its distribution of continental mass, much of Pangaea was in the southern hemisphere and surrounded by a superocean, Panthalassa. Pangaea was the most recent supercontinent to have existed and the first to be reconstructed by geologists.

Origin of the concept

The name "Pangaea/Pangea" is derived from Ancient Greek pan (πᾶν, "all, entire, whole") and Gaia (Γαῖα, "Mother Earth, land").[5][10] The concept that the continents once formed a continuous land mass was first proposed by Alfred Wegener, the originator of the scientific theory of continental drift, in his 1912 publication The Origin of Continents (Die Entstehung der Kontinente).[11] He expanded upon his hypothesis in his 1915 book The Origin of Continents and Oceans (Die Entstehung der Kontinente und Ozeane), in which he postulated that, before breaking up and drifting to their present locations, all the continents had formed a single supercontinent that he called the "Urkontinent".

The name "Pangea" occurs in the 1920 edition of Die Entstehung der Kontinente und Ozeane, but only once, when Wegener refers to the ancient supercontinent as "the Pangaea of the Carboniferous".[12] Wegener used the Germanized form "Pangäa", but the name entered German and English scientific literature (in 1922[13] and 1926, respectively) in the Latinized form "Pangaea" (of the Greek "Pangaia"), especially due to a symposium of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists in November 1926.[14]

Formation

Appalachian orogeny

The forming of supercontinents and their breaking up appears to have been cyclical through Earth's history. There may have been many others before Pangaea. The fourth-last supercontinent, called Columbia or Nuna, appears to have assembled in the period 2.0–1.8 Ga.[15][16] Columbia/Nuna broke up and the next supercontinent, Rodinia, formed from the accretion and assembly of its fragments. Rodinia lasted from about 1.1 billion years ago (Ga) until about 750 million years ago, but its exact configuration and geodynamic history are not nearly as well understood as those of the later supercontinents, Pannotia and Pangaea.

When Rodinia broke up, it split into three pieces: the supercontinent of Proto-Laurasia, the supercontinent of Proto-Gondwana, and the smaller Congo craton. Proto-Laurasia and Proto-Gondwana were separated by the Proto-Tethys Ocean. Next Proto-Laurasia itself split apart to form the continents of Laurentia, Siberia and Baltica. Baltica moved to the east of Laurentia, and Siberia moved northeast of Laurentia. The splitting also created two new oceans, the Iapetus Ocean and Paleoasian Ocean. Most of the above masses coalesced again to form the relatively short-lived supercontinent of Pannotia. This supercontinent included large amounts of land near the poles and, near the equator, only a relatively small strip connecting the polar masses. Pannotia lasted until 540 Ma, near the beginning of the Cambrian period and then broke up, giving rise to the continents of Laurentia, Baltica, and the southern supercontinent of Gondwana.

In the Cambrian period, the continent of Laurentia, which would later become North America, sat on the equator, with three bordering oceans: the Panthalassic Ocean to the north and west, the Iapetus Ocean to the south and the Khanty Ocean to the east. In the Earliest Ordovician, around 480 Ma, the microcontinent of Avalonia – a landmass incorporating fragments of what would become eastern Newfoundland, the southern British Isles, and parts of Belgium, northern France, Nova Scotia, New England, South Iberia and northwest Africa – broke free from Gondwana and began its journey to Laurentia.[17] Baltica, Laurentia, and Avalonia all came together by the end of the Ordovician to form a minor supercontinent called Euramerica or Laurussia, closing the Iapetus Ocean. The collision also resulted in the formation of the northern Appalachians. Siberia sat near Euramerica, with the Khanty Oceanbetween the two continents. While all this was happening, Gondwana drifted slowly towards the South Pole. This was the first step of the formation of Pangaea.[18]

The second step in the formation of Pangaea was the collision of Gondwana with Euramerica. By the Silurian, 440 Ma, Baltica had already collided with Laurentia, forming Euramerica. Avalonia had not yet collided with Laurentia, but as Avalonia inched towards Laurentia, the seaway between them, a remnant of the Iapetus Ocean, was slowly shrinking. Meanwhile, southern Europe broke off from Gondwana and began to move towards Euramerica across the newly formed Rheic Ocean. It collided with southern Baltica in the Devonian, though this microcontinent was an underwater plate. The Iapetus Ocean's sister ocean, the Khanty Ocean, shrank as an island arc from Siberia collided with eastern Baltica (now part of Euramerica). Behind this island arc was a new ocean, the Ural Ocean.

By the late Silurian, North and South China split from Gondwana and started to head northward, shrinking the Proto-Tethys Ocean in their path and opening the new Paleo-Tethys Ocean to their south. In the Devonian Period, Gondwana itself headed towards Euramerica, causing the Rheic Ocean to shrink. In the Early Carboniferous, northwest Africa had touched the southeastern coast of Euramerica, creating the southern portion of the Appalachian Mountains, the Meseta Mountains and the Mauritanide Mountains. South America moved northward to southern Euramerica, while the eastern portion of Gondwana (India, Antarctica and Australia) headed toward the South Pole from the equator. North and South China were on independent continents. The Kazakhstania microcontinent had collided with Siberia. (Siberia had been a separate continent for millions of years since the deformation of the supercontinent Pannotia in the Middle Carboniferous.)

Western Kazakhstania collided with Baltica in the Late Carboniferous, closing the Ural Ocean between them and the western Proto-Tethys in them (Uralian orogeny), causing the formation of not only the Ural Mountains but also the supercontinent of Laurasia. This was the last step of the formation of Pangaea. Meanwhile, South America had collided with southern Laurentia, closing the Rheic Ocean and forming the southernmost part of the Appalachians and Ouachita Mountains. By this time, Gondwana was positioned near the South Pole and glaciers were forming in Antarctica, India, Australia, southern Africa and South America. The North China block collided with Siberia by the Late Carboniferous, completely closing the Proto-Tethys Ocean.

By the early Permian, the Cimmerian plate split from Gondwana and headed towards Laurasia, thus closing the Paleo-Tethys Ocean, but forming a new ocean, the Tethys Ocean, in its southern end. Most of the landmasses were all in one. By the Triassic Period, Pangaea rotated a little and the Cimmerian plate was still travelling across the shrinking Paleo-Tethys, until the Middle Jurassic. The Paleo-Tethys had closed from west to east, creating the Cimmerian Orogeny. Pangaea, which looked like a C, with the new Tethys Ocean inside the C, had rifted by the Middle Jurassic, and its deformation is explained below.

Evidence of existence
The distribution of fossils across the continents is one line of evidence pointing to the existence of Pangaea.

Fossil evidence for Pangaea includes the presence of similar and identical species on continents that are now great distances apart. For example, fossils of the therapsid Lystrosaurus have been found in South Africa, India and Antarctica, alongside members of the Glossopteris flora, whose distribution would have ranged from the polar circle to the equator if the continents had been in their present position; similarly, the freshwater reptile Mesosaurus has been found in only localized regions of the coasts of Brazil and West Africa.[19]

Additional evidence for Pangaea is found in the geology of adjacent continents, including matching geological trends between the eastern coast of South America and the western coast of Africa. The polar ice cap of the Carboniferous Period covered the southern end of Pangaea. Glacial deposits, specifically till, of the same age and structure are found on many separate continents that would have been together in the continent of Pangaea.[20]

Paleomagnetic study of apparent polar wandering paths also support the theory of a supercontinent. Geologists can determine the movement of continental plates by examining the orientation of magnetic minerals in rocks; when rocks are formed, they take on the magnetic properties of the Earth and indicate in which direction the poles lie relative to the rock. Since the magnetic poles drift about the rotational pole with a period of only a few thousand years, measurements from numerous lavas spanning several thousand years are averaged to give an apparent mean polar position. Samples of sedimentary rock and intrusive igneous rock have magnetic orientations that are typically an average of the "secular variation" in the orientation of magnetic north because their remanent magnetizations are not acquired instantaneously. Magnetic differences between sample groups whose age varies by millions of years is due to a combination of true polar wander and the drifting of continents. The true polar wander component is identical for all samples, and can be removed, leaving geologists with the portion of this motion that shows continental drift and can be used to help reconstruct earlier continental positions.[21]

The continuity of mountain chains provides further evidence for Pangaea. One example of this is the Appalachian Mountains chain, which extends from the southeastern United States to the Caledonides of Ireland, Britain, Greenland, and Scandinavia.[22]

Rifting and break-up
Animation of the rifting of Pangaea

There were three major phases in the break-up of Pangaea. The first phase began in the Early-Middle Jurassic (about 175 Ma), when Pangaea began to rift from the Tethys Ocean in the east to the Pacific in the west. The rifting that took place between North America and Africa produced multiple failed rifts. One rift resulted in a new ocean, the North Atlantic Ocean.[22]

The Atlantic Ocean did not open uniformly; rifting began in the north-central Atlantic. The South Atlantic did not open until the Cretaceous when Laurasia started to rotate clockwise and moved northward with North America to the north, and Eurasia to the south. The clockwise motion of Laurasia led much later to the closing of the Tethys Ocean and the widening of the "Sinus Borealis", which later became the Arctic Ocean. Meanwhile, on the other side of Africa and along the adjacent margins of east Africa, Antarctica and Madagascar, new rifts were forming that would lead to the formation of the southwestern Indian Ocean that would open up in the Cretaceous.

The second major phase in the break-up of Pangaea began in the Early Cretaceous (150–140 Ma), when the minor supercontinent of Gondwana separated into multiple continents (Africa, South America, India, Antarctica, and Australia). The subduction at Tethyan Trench probably caused Africa, India and Australia to move northward, causing the opening of a "South Indian Ocean". In the Early Cretaceous, Atlantica, today's South America and Africa, finally separated from eastern Gondwana (Antarctica, India and Australia). Then in the Middle Cretaceous, Gondwana fragmented to open up the South Atlantic Ocean as South America started to move westward away from Africa. The South Atlantic did not develop uniformly; rather, it rifted from south to north.

Also, at the same time, Madagascar and India began to separate from Antarctica and moved northward, opening up the Indian Ocean. Madagascar and India separated from each other 100–90 Ma in the Late Cretaceous. India continued to move northward toward Eurasia at 15 centimeters (6 in) a year (a plate tectonic record), closing the eastern Tethys Ocean, while Madagascar stopped and became locked to the African Plate. New Zealand, New Caledonia and the rest of Zealandia began to separate from Australia, moving eastward toward the Pacific and opening the Coral Sea and Tasman Sea.

The third major and final phase of the break-up of Pangaea occurred in the early Cenozoic (Paleocene to Oligocene). Laurasia split when North America/Greenland (also called Laurentia) broke free from Eurasia, opening the Norwegian Sea about 60–55 Ma. The Atlantic and Indian Oceans continued to expand, closing the Tethys Ocean.

Meanwhile, Australia split from Antarctica and moved quickly northward, just as India had done more than 40 million years before. Australia is currently on a collision course with eastern Asia. Both Australia and India are currently moving northeast at 5–6 centimeters (2–3 in) a year. Antarctica has been near or at the South Pole since the formation of Pangaea about 280 Ma. India started to collide with Asia beginning about 35 Ma, forming the Himalayan orogeny, and also finally closing the Tethys Seaway; this collision continues today. The African Plate started to change directions, from west to northwest toward Europe, and South America began to move in a northward direction, separating it from Antarctica and allowing complete oceanic circulation around Antarctica for the first time. This motion, together with decreasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, caused a rapid cooling of Antarctica and allowed glaciers to form. This glaciation eventually coalesced into the kilometers-thick ice sheets seen today.[23] Other major events took place during the Cenozoic, including the opening of the Gulf of California, the uplift of the Alps, and the opening of the Sea of Japan. The break-up of Pangaea continues today in the Red Sea Rift and East African Rift.

Tectonic plate shift
The breakup of Pangaea over time

Pangaea's formation is now commonly explained in terms of plate tectonics. The involvement of plate tectonics in Pangaea's[24] separation helps to show how it did not separate all at once, but at different times, in sequences. Additionally, after these separations, it has also been discovered that the separated land masses may have also continued to break apart multiple times. The formation of each environment and climate on Pangaea is due to plate tectonics, and thus, it is as a result of these shifts and changes different climatic pressures were placed on the life on Pangaea. Although plate tectonics was paramount in the formation of later land masses, it was also essential in the placement, climate, environments, habitats, and overall structure of Pangaea.[25]

What can also be observed in relation to tectonic plates and Pangaea, is the formations to such plates. Mountains and valleys form due to tectonic collisions as well as earthquakes and chasms. Consequentially, this shaped Pangaea and animal adaptations. Furthermore, plate tectonics can contribute to volcanic activity,[26] which is responsible for extinctions and adaptations that have evidently affected life over time, and without doubt on Pangaea.

Life
Example of an ammonite

For the approximately 160 million years Pangaea existed, many species had fruitful times whereas others struggled. The Traversodontidae[27] is an example of such prospering animals, eating a diet of only plants. Plants dependent on spore reproduction had been taken out of the ecosystems, and replaced by the gymnosperm plant, which reproduces through the use of seeds instead. Later on, insects (beetles, dragonflies, mosquitos) also thrived during the Permianperiod 299 to 252 million years ago.[28] However, the Permian extinction at 252 Mya greatly impacted these insects in mass extinction, being the only mass extinction to affect insects. When the Triassic Period came, many reptiles were able to also thrive, including Archosaurs, which were an ancestor to modern-day crocodiles and birds.

Little is known about marine life during the existence of Pangaea. Scientists are unable to find substantial evidence or fossilized remains in order to assist them in answering such questions. However, a couple of marine animals have been determined to have existed at the time - the Ammonites and Brachiopods. Additionally, evidence pointing towards massive reefs with varied ecosystems, especially in the species of sponges and coral, have also been discovered.[citation needed]

Climate change after Pangaea

Pangaea has tremendously affected the setup of the world now. In the post Pangaea time period, the reconfiguration of continents and oceans has changed the climate of many areas. There is scientific evidence that proves that climate was drastically altered. When the continents separated and reformed themselves, it changed the flow of the oceanic currents and winds. The scientific reasoning behind all of the changes is Continental Drift. The theory of Continental Drift, created by Alfred Wegener, explained how the continents shifted Earth’s surface and how that affected many aspects such as climate, rock formations found on different continents and plant and animal fossils.[29]Wegener studied plant fossils from the frigid Arctic of Svalbard, Norway. He determined that such plants were not meant to adapt to a glacial climate. The fossils he found were from tropical plants that were meant to adapt and thrive in warmer and tropical climate.[30] Because we would not assume that the plant fossils were capable of traveling to a different place we suspect that Svalbard possibly had a warmer, less frigid climate in the past.[31]

When Pangaea separated, the reorganization of the continents changed the function of the oceans and seaways. The restructuring of the continents, changed and altered the distribution of warmth and coolness of the oceans. When North America and South America connected, it stopped equatorial currents from passing from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean.[32] Researchers have found evidence by using computer hydrological models to show that this strengthened the Gulf Stream by diverting more warm currents towards Europe. Warm waters at high latitudes led to an increased evaporation and eventually atmospheric moisture. Increased evaporation and atmospheric moisture resulted in increased precipitation. Evidence of increased precipitation is the development of snow and ice that covers Greenland, which led to an accumulation of the icecap. Greenland’s growing ice cap led to further global cooling.[32] Scientists also found evidence of global cooling through the separation of Australia and Antarctica and the formation of the Antarctic Ocean. Ocean currents in the newly formed Antarctic or Southern Ocean created a circumpolar current.[32] The creation of the new ocean that caused a circumpolar current eventually led to atmospheric currents that rotated from west to east. Atmospheric and oceanic currents stopped the transfer of warm, tropical air and water to the higher latitudes. As a result of the warm air and currents moving northward, Antarctica cooled down so much that it became frigid.

Although many of Alfred Wegener’s theories and conclusions were valid, scientists are constantly coming up with new innovative ideas or reasoning behind why certain things happen. Wegener’s theory of Continental Drift was later replaced by the theory of tectonic plates.[33]

Implications of extinction

There is evidence to suggest that the deterioration of northern Pangaea contributed to the Permian Extinction, one of Earth’s five major mass extinction events, which resulted in the loss of over 90% of marine and 70% of terrestrial species. There were three main sources of environmental deterioration that are believed to have had a hand in the extinction event.

The first of these sources is a loss of oxygen concentration in the ocean, which caused deep water regions called the lysocline to grow shallower. With the lysocline shrinking, there were fewer places for calcite to dissolve in the ocean, considering calcite only dissolves at deep ocean depths. This led to the extinction of carbonate producers such as brachiopods and corals that relied on dissolved calcite to survive. The second source is the eruption of the Siberian Traps, a large volcanic event that is argued to be the result of Pangaean tectonic movement.[34] This had several negative repercussions on the environment, including metal loading and excess atmospheric carbon. Metal loading, the release of toxic metals from volcanic eruptions into the environment, led to acid rain and general stress on the environment. These toxic metals are known to infringe on vascular plants’ ability to photosynthesize, which may have resulted in the loss of Permian-era flora. Excess carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is believed to be the main cause of the shrinking of lysocline areas.

The third cause of this extinction event that can be attributed to northern Pangaea is the beginnings of anoxic ocean environments, or oceans with very low oxygen concentrations. The mix of anoxic oceans and ocean acidification due to metal loading led to increasingly acidic oceans,[35] which ultimately led to the extinction of benthic species.[36]




















Ancient Galactic Ware-fare  



by Wes Penre

July 20, 2012
from WesPenre Website

Spanish version

(Are you looking for [def] = "Definitions of Special Terminology"...?  Go HERE)

1. Queendom and Kingdoms in Orion

Nine hundred light-years from Earth, orbiting a star system of a hot blue star in the Belt of Orion, a steaming planet was born.

This planet was a beautiful jungle-like world. It was allegedly one in a series of planets and star systems which were seeded first, after the Goddess had created this Universe and it had cooled off enough for life to exist.

A team of Builders [def] were appointed, and the show began in this young Universe, billions upon billions of years ago.


Figure 3-1

The Belt of Orion


After the Builders had panspermed the first series of planets, some time passed, and the Builders came back and continued the seeding of this particular jungle planet, being the beginning of a rich animal life which eventually would, together with the fauna, develop into a full grown ecosystem.

Then was the time to create a more advanced, intelligent life form, and the first Reptilian race in this Universe was born.

Figure 3-2

Aryan Reptilian male, earlier in their development,

like comparing us to ape-men.

They later evolved to look more human-like

(depicted here as imagined by this author)


This new Universe was a universe of 'free will', an experiment in its own right to see how living entities could survive in a harsher environment and still develop love, compassion and empathy and learn the 'Ways of the Goddess'.

And this jungle world was indeed a harsh environment to survive in.

The experiment started with this ancient reptilian race (whom have been called the Ancient Ones in esoteric circles here on Earth), who was the first to prove if they could do it.

This particular Reptilian species was born with the Fire of the Mother inserted into their black, reptilian bodies.

Although they had a close connection to the Goddess, because this was how they were designed, they were still required to go through evolution. Pure survival required of them to develop both brilliance and strong, enduring bodies to be able to master the environment they were born into. In the ancient beginnings, these ruthless, ferocious reptiles had scales covering their bodies for protection, and they could even fly, having huge wings on their backs.

With time they learned how to conquer the world they were born into. They started building early civilizations which became more and more advanced, and although civil wars and conflicts were common in the beginning, they eventually managed to explore other planets in their own solar system.

As they evolved, their scales disappeared and over the generations they started looking more and more humanoid, but still with certain remaining reptilian features. With time their bodies became long and slender, contrary to the Sirians, who are short and stocky, and their bodies were, and still are black.

These days the women have a pinched waist, similar to the bee, and you can see this feature in some human women as well.

In Swedish, we call it geting-midja or wasp-waist. However, when we're speaking of the Aryans, their waist line is very thin; much thinner than in any human female. In the early days, the Reptilians had more of a triangular head, but it eventually became more rounded in males, albeit, still remaining somewhat triangular in females.

They had little, or no body hair, and most of them, even the females, did not have hair on their heads, either. Their eyes were large and piercing. According to what I read or hear, these days they are actually, believe it or not, quite gorgeous looking.

The saying goes that hardly any male in the Universe can resist an Aryan female.[1]

The males have broader chests, but just like the females they have narrow waists. Their legs are thicker and their buttocks bigger, showing typical male features. Their faces, although rounded, have a squarer chin than the females, who in general have a softer, more feminine look to them. The mouths of both males and the females are large, and when they are closed, they blend in with the rest of the face and almost seem invisible.

Their teeth, however, females and males alike, are still sharp and quite useful after billions of years of evolution.

The females, in the early days, also possessed a deadly venom, which she could use in battle by spitting quite a long distance, and whomever got hit, either died or was paralyzed. It seems like she lost her abilities to do this a long time ago.[2][3]

Their society became very female oriented with time as the species developed, and life in Orion revolved around the Orion Queen. The females did the hard work and the male's rule was to mate with the Queen and protect her from enemies and invaders.

On the battlefield it was usually the males who dominated, although the females were excellent warriors in their own right, but at home it was the female who dominated daily life in the Aryan society; the male was the hunter and the warrior.

Early on, the male warriors started conquering neighboring territories and took them over.

These territories were then ruled by the males who conquered them, and they became known as the Black NEKH Kings, or just the Black Kings. They ruled their Kingdoms with an iron fist. However, in the center of the Aryan world, the Queen remained the ruler and was the center of attention.

So in that sense, the Aryan world was divided between the Kings and the Queen.

Still, when came to serious matters, the Kings always obeyed the Queen's will, so in that sense, the Queen was in charge. So it seems like the separation between males and females have been an issue ever since the beginning of time.

This subject is also described very well and in details on The Ages of Uraš.[4]



2. The First Great Galactic War

As time went by, the Aryans became more peaceful and stopped engaging themselves in wars between each other and instead started developing technology under one flag.

The Kingdoms merged into one Kingdom under one King. The weapon industry was an important one, but they also engaged in all other sciences and technologies thinkable and eventually became very 'high tech'.

The male NEKH warriors figured out how to reach out in space and explore the neighbor worlds, but soon also figured out how to do interstellar space travel.

They started visiting other star systems which had developed life, just like themselves, but most of these worlds were not nearly as developed as those of Orion. Hence, in the beginning there was no resistance when the Aryans came. The inhabitants of these younger worlds welcomed them with open arms, in very peaceful manners. They simply didn't know better, as they had apparently not developed warlike behavior.

The NEKH King and his warriors were surprised to meet this kind of hospitality, but took advantage of it. They started establishing bases on these worlds and soon came to rule them under kings of their own species. But all these 'conquered' worlds answered to the NEKH King who sat on the Throne of the Orion Empire on the home planet.

The conquest continued, and the Orion Empire expanded without much resistance.

However, with time other star races in the Galaxy had developed as well, and suddenly the Aryan warriors encountered worlds where the inhabitants could defend themselves. Some of them still stood no chance against the ferocious NEKH warriors, and these worlds, too, were conquered and put under Orion jurisdiction.

But not all battles were won. Some of the star beings on planets the Aryans approached were at least as ferocious as themselves and the Reptilians started losing some of these battles and had to retreat. When this had happened a few times, and many Aryans had died in battle, they stopped their conquest for a while to think things over.

That was the end of The First Great Galactic War, long before the Sirian star race even existed.



3. The Second Great Galactic War

The Orion NEKH King was pondering what to do.

Then he realized that in the distant past, females had been even better warriors than the males, so the King decided to bring the females into the war, to fight side by side with the males.

And so they started another galactic war in an effort to expand the Empire.


Figure 3-3

An artist's vision of an Amazon Warrior


This time they were much more successful.

The females were not only incredible warriors, who never backed off, always fighting to the bitter end, if necessary, they also had a deadly weapon that the males didn't have - their venom!

They could spit the enemies in their eyes, bite them, scratch them with their claw-like nails, or spit on the blades of their swords of knives, and when poking the enemy, if they didn't die from the poke, they died from the poison. The thing is that the venom that was produced could paralyze or kill the enemy in almost an instant.

This made the Aryan females feared in the entire sector of the Galaxy, among the worlds to which the rumor had spread. This way, a lot of new worlds and star systems were conquered and merged into the Orion Empire, which grew fast and steadily.

Albeit, there was also great resistance on some worlds, and not all battles were won, but it looks like most of them were, something that inspired the Aryans to continue their conquest of the Galaxy. The female warriors were indeed the legendary 'Amazon Warriors', and legend says that Bellatrix in Orion is the Amazon Star. [5]

When a world at war with the Aryans had to negotiate, their leaders rather speak to a male diplomat than a female, because they feared their fury.

Once a world was conquered, a King was still sat on the throne, but females protected him and the planet. They were seldom heavily armed; all they needed were spears, swords, knives, and perhaps arrow and bow, just like the artist suggests in 'fig.3-3' above. Isn't that how we humans depict an Amazon warrior?

We picture them as tall, perhaps giant women, beautiful but deadly, and this was how the early female Bellatrix Warriors were. The Reptilian Aryan race, contrary to the Sirians, are tall; probably taller than humans and could perhaps be viewed as 'giants' in our eyes.

The conquest continued and the Orion Empire grew in size to become the largest empire in the Ninth Sector of the Galaxy.

With hundreds upon hundreds of star systems under the Belt, the Aryans eventually settled down and stopped conquering; at least in the capacity that they had in the past.

The Second Great Galactic War was over, and this time the success was complete.

The Aryans were very pleased!


4. From Kingdom to Queendom

Here on Earth we have a saying that "behind every successful man there is a woman".

We joke about it, but in many cases, this is correct. Women in our society have been very suppressed, as we know, and many of them know that they are often smarter than men in many ways; they have more intuition, are more connected with what we call the 96% Universe, can see bigger pictures, and make decision that show to bear fruit over a longer period of time.

Hence, because women, when they understand that the man's ego will be hurt if they make the decisions, they often still do, but in a more subtle way. They understand how the man thinks and can be master manipulators so that they get their ways thinking that it was the man's decision.

Thus, his ego is not hurt. I am not suggesting that women are more manipulative than men, but in a suppressed state, they have developed these skills and are using them, often successfully.

The same principle worked in Orion. In the Empire, the female was never suppressed like she is here, and was actually the administrator of the Empire even when the Kings sat on the thrones of the worlds, but the Kings had the real power during, and after, the Great Galactic Wars. At least, that's what they believed.

However, just like here on Earth, the Kings liked to believe they were the smarter ones, but were manipulated both by the Queen and her administrators. They themselves never saw it coming because their egos prevented them from seeing it, but in the eyes of the Aryan people, the Queen and her administrators became more and more respected and the ones the people listened to.

The Queen still sat on the throne as the head of the females, but in the eyes of the Kings, she was more decorative than powerful. This was a big mistake, as would show.

The Orion Queen had planned the coup in the smallest details. One night, the lead King of the Orion Empire was killed by the Queen's female Elite warriors.

The Queen announced to the King's Court that there was an ongoing coup; an attempt to take over the Empire from within. She blamed the coup on males trying to take over when the King was murdered, but assured the Empire that she, the Queen of Orion, would help them through these difficult times and would be the new, temporary leader of the Empire until the rebels had all been found and assassinated.

Then the power would go back to the males, she said, and a new king would be selected. Many protested, especially in the male cabinet, but the Queen held her position

However, in the next few weeks, the same males who had protested mysteriously 'disappeared' and were later found dead. So were the heirs of the King. Key people of his bloodline were conveniently assassinated and the Empire was in shock and confusion. Still, the Queen reassured them that the traitors would be found and taken care of.

But this was just the beginning. On the other worlds, which had been conquered by the Aryans, the Kings, one by one, were murdered, and the planets were taken over by female administrators. The original inhabitants of these Aryan colonies saw this as an opportunity to rebel, thinking that they had spotted a weakness in the Kingdom of Orion now when the Kings could no longer defend their domains.

Big mistake...

The Aryan females were far more ferocious than their male part, and all rebellion was quickly handled in its cradle and order was reestablished, more or less immediately.

Before the males had had the chance to really come to terms with what was happening, the Queen and her warriors had already taken over, not only the home planet in Orion's Belt, but also the colonies. The Kingdom of Orion had now become the Queendom of Orion.

The females had regained the power over the Empire.



5. The Third Great Galactic War

Once the females had taken back the power in Orion, things started progressing quickly. If star races thought that the Orion Kings were ruthless conquerors, they hadn't seen anything yet.

Now things had changed to the opposite, and the Royal NEKH [def] and MAKH [def] warriors now served the Queen. But the most fearless ones were still the Amazon Warriors from Bellatrix. Together, they conquered worlds, not only in their own sector of the Galaxy, but in other sectors as well as other galaxies.

The triumph was big, because the Queen realized that her Empire was unbreakable; who would even think of attack her now? The rumors of the fury of the Queen and her Amazons, NEKH and MAKH warriors spread like wildfire through the Universe, and when a star race knew they were approaching, many laid down their weapons and surrendered.

The Aryans, when spoken about on other worlds, were often called the SSS, due to their hissing sound when they talked, just like serpents.

Although, the Queen on the home world was called NEKH-T, where 'T' stood for Queen, one of her many titles became SSS-SSS, both at home and on other worlds. In Orion, if you were a person of rank, you doubled your name; in this case from SSS to SSS-SSS.

The Empire itself throughout the Ninth Sector became known as 'AN', which means 'The Highest' or 'Heaven, the Orion Empire[6]. Interesting, then, how the Sirian Overlords later on started using Aryan, feminine names as names of their Kings and Royalty.

The most prominent King of Sirius during the Sumerian times, and even long before and after, called himself AN (adopted by the Sumerian languages), and he was ANU in Akkadian.


6. Peace in Orion

After perhaps millions of years of conquest, the Aryans eventually laid down their weapons.

At least they did no longer offensively attack other star races, and now only used violence if they had to defend themselves against invader forces. And then only as the last result. The Queen became tired of war and started realizing that killing is indeed a double-edged sword, where those who kill will later be killed in some revengeful situation, or maybe because if your energies are focused on war and killing, those are the energies you attract.

And not only that...

At some point, the Queen and her people became much more spiritually oriented, perhaps thanks to her MAKH scientists, who may at one point have discovered that the Universe indeed is feminine in nature. As the Aryan soul group evolved, they started seeing things differently, and they realized that they all were part of the 'Great Spirit', the creation of the Mother Goddess.

And so, the Religion of the Mother Goddess was eventually reaching a higher peak of development, where the Queen, allegedly due to her basic Fire, could connect with the KHAA and act as a 'medium' for the Goddess energy.

People probably immediately let the word 'channeler' come to mind, but it was apparently much more than that; the Queen had a direct 'telepathic' connection with the Goddess, and by many - both on the home planet and elsewhere in the Empire and beyond - she became thought of as the Goddess manifest. This, of course, couldn't have happened over night; from her star race being ferocious conquerors to being accepted as the main spiritual group in this sector of the Universe.

It was a transition which probably took thousands, if not millions of years.

Today, the Orion Queen is still the Queen of the Stars, but her Empire is now a peaceful one, and star races from near and far come to Orion to trade or ask for advice.

Star races, instead of being forced into the Empire, are now asking for membership, or are asked to join if they see fit and ready.


7. The Aryan Founders, the Tree of Life and the Elixir of the Gods

The Aryans were, as we know, a highly technological society, and with time they became Founders; they learned how to seed planets with life.

Hence, instead of conquering other worlds, they now went out and did it the way that was expected from a higher evolved race. Although the Universe was still relatively young (we are talking about billions of years ago), there were already lots of beings and star races who had evolved outside the Orion Empire to become Life Designers at their own merit.

However, there was an abundance of empty star systems which were ready to be panspermed.

So the Orions lined up with creator gods from other star systems outside the Empire and even from other universes to seed new planets all around the Milky Way and beyond. Once these new planets had developed their fauna and flora, most of them were then being inhabited by their own intelligent race, who had the potentials to eventually reach the stars.

Once these new races were ready, they either applied for membership in the Orion Empire, or were asked if they wanted to join. Most of them did (and do), while a few decided to go their own way, and some of these created their own empires eventually.


(NOTE: There should be noted here that there is channeled material, and the same thing can be read in Anton Parks' work and others, where it is stated that the Orion Empire is known as a 'religious cult' in the Universe, where the Aryans worship a Mother Goddess, and the Orion Queen has put herself as the emissary of the Goddess.

This means that, if you subscribe to this 'cult', you can't pray or talk to the Mother Goddess without first going through the Queen. If this would be true, the Orion Empire is nothing but a religious dictatorship, similar to the Catholic Church on Earth, where the Pope has put himself between the people and the Creator, as the 'Emissary to God'.

Although, I have reasons to believe that this is not the case, even if it may seem so to some readers. Again, I am trusting anonymous sources, whom I respect and have learned to trust. Still, I ask the readers to use their own judgment and discernment and do their own research where possible and doubt what I'm saying here if it doesn't ring true.

I have no way at this time to prove my statements, other than presenting my experience and the knowledge I have gained. However, this is my knowledge, so each person needs to use their own intuition and imagination sometimes in order to connect the dots).


The MAKH scientists [def], who were the Queen's personal scientists, were not only seeding planets and developing skills to create bodies from scratch, they also dedicated themselves to, among other things, finding a way to extend the life expectancy of a biological being.

In the Bible this is referred to as the 'Tree of Life'. It apparently took them a million years (the way we count time) to develop an elixir which could extend life considerably. There were a few milestones on the way, where the scientists managed to extend the life cycle of an individual gradually, but no notable successes could be measured until after about a million of year's worth of research.

Eventually, they could present the very Life Elixir which became the Tree of Life, and it became known as the S-MA.

The Queen and her race are cold-blooded because they are Reptilians, but the MAKH Scientists had found a way to develop extracts based on warm-blood nutrients. [7]

This liquid worked as an 'enhancer' of the Queen's metabolism and added to a being's physical strength and vitality. It also had showed to extend the life of the Queen considerably, so basically, while looking for a way to extend the life of biological bodies, the solution came when looking into something totally different - a nutrient for the Queen.

Amazingly enough, the S-MA showed to extend the Queen's life span with up to perhaps millions of years, or more. Being part of the physical universe, or the 4%, everything ages and declines, even so the bodies of the Orion Queen.

So in simple terms, what the MAKH scientists did was to take the KHAA essence and apply it to bodies in the physical universe. This liquid became known as 'Soma' (from S-MA, where 'S' is causative, and 'MA' means Mother in Aryan), the Elixir of the Gods or The Fountain of Youth.

The Queen noticed that by taking this elixir, her aging halted considerably, and not only that - she stayed young; both at heart and in spirit.


So, the MAKH scientists continued their research along these lines and eventually found a way to reanimate a body. If a body died, and it was taken care of within a reasonable time afterwards, it could be reanimated and brought back to life. [8]

This was only possible, of course, if the body was still in a reasonable shape (this is also why the Egyptian pharaohs were mummified; they thought they could be revived at a later time). In addition, they also learned how to regenerate bodies by taking cells from living beings and restore body parts in case of an injury or decay.

Due to all this research, bodies could now be kept intact, almost forever, and death more or less became something that could be referred to in the history books.

Before this elixir was totally developed, the Queen died of old age on occasion, and had to start anew in a new body, similar to how the Dalai Lama does it here on Earth, where the legend says that the Dalai Lama is reincarnating in a new body and just continues his mission.

The new Dalai Lama has to be found, and there are certain body marks and other signs which tell the lamas of the East how to find him.

Figure 3-4

The Dalai Lama

Once he's found, they teach him to remember who he really is, and he can reestablish himself as the new Dalai Lama.

Transferred to our Orion story, the Queen would take a new body within the same bloodline as the old one and continue from there. This could at times be quite cumbersome, and with this new elixir, this problem became more or less obsolete. This liquid was also shared with other, trusted members of the Orion Empire and became the Elixir of the Gods, that the Sirians and others fought over while here on Earth.

We need to keep in mind, though, that the body of those star races are of a lighter density than those of humans, and thus live longer by default, and star beings in general, who are not trapped like we are, can normally, once they've reached a certain stage of development, choose whether they want to keep a purely physical body or not.

Some think it's convenient, while others find it being an obstacle, so it varies. It is my understanding that the Orion Queen is indeed still keeping her body as a vessel to bring in the KHAA energies.

Of course, over time the Aryan scientists learned how to clone whole bodies as well, and they were not the only ones who knew how to do that. It is, as we've discussed earlier, a common way for beings to jump from one body to the next (something the Sirians do all the time), and this technology is not isolated to the Orion Empire.

We can read extensively about it in Anton Parks' chronicles as well as elsewhere in metaphysical literature.

But due to the connection the Queen allegedly has established with the KHAA, one would presume she wants to keep her originally body as intact as possible and not degenerate it if she can avoid it.



8. The Sirian - Orion War

Becoming a peaceful star race themselves didn't make all other star races in the Galaxy peaceful, of course.

This was something the Queen was soon to discover first hand. There were always species attacking Orion from one flank or another in efforts to weaken the vast Empire. This never worked, however - Orion was too strong. The Queen normally managed to calm the invaders down and either have them to leave, or started recruiting them for the Empire if they showed they could their ways.

Some of them, when they saw the benefits, actually did, while others backed off. On rare occasion, Orion had to defend themselves, but the invaders soon realized that they didn't stand a chance.

Dream of their surprise when all of a sudden a wolfen-reptilian dwarf race hit their Empire from south-west! Never before had the tall Aryans seen anything like it.

They, who called themselves the Sirian Overlords were the height of a (human) 10 year old, but they were stocky, vicious looking, fast and extremely strong.[9]

They looked wolf-catlike, but with a reptilian horn bone across their foreheads. It was said that the more prominent the horn, the more powerful the being was. Many of them also wore helmets with horns on them. And the weirdest of it all - they came in hollowed-out planets!

This way, they took the outer flanks of Orion with surprise and quickly came closer and closer to PESH-METEN, the Queen's own Sector 9 star lane.

8.1 The First Attacks on the Orion Empire

Soon enough, however, when the Sirian Overlords had fought a few battles, they realized that they had encountered what they thought was an equal enemy, and they finally got some resistance.

The Wolven Lords had learned how to navigate the nano world with hollowed out asteroids and planets, and these warships made an excellent shelter and a deadly weapon. An armada of hollowed out planets could suddenly appear out of nowhere in 4-space/time, taking everybody by surprise. Then they hit without mercy, making full use of their deadly weapons.

The Sirians didn't hesitate. They attacked Orion with full force, despite the warnings from the Orion Guards.

The battles were furious and bloody. For the first time, the Sirians felt that they fought for their lives against an enemy that could meet their capacity. It didn't take them long, however, to realize that not only did the Orions meet their capacity, but by far exceeded it.

They couldn't believe it! Someone could actually threaten the feared Khanus Lords?!?

The Aryan's warning didn't go over well with the Sirians, so they had to taste the power of the Orion Empire. The Aryans destroyed hollowed-out planet after planet, totally terminating all life and making it into stardust, floating around in space like grains of sand. Very few Sirians survived the Aryan counter-attacks.

The Sirians withdrew and licked their wounds. The King of Kings from Canis Major, the Lord KHANUS KHANUR [def], was baffled and absolutely furious. He couldn't believe how easily his people were defeated. With his armor still on, he furiously sat himself down on his throne and breathed heavily through his teeth, making it sound like a tornado.

He needed to change strategies, determined not to give up.

Contrary to his method not to take any prisoners, but to kill all enemies and eat the wounded alive, he had decided to make an exception. He had ordered his men to take a few prisoners of war, whom he intended to interrogate and torture. But there was one thing that was even worse than being defeated; something he couldn't get over, and something that embarrassed him to the tenth degree.

Many of the best of the Orion warriors were females!!! And the rulers of the Orion Empire were females as well!

In his world, females were always in the background, standing behind the men, following every move they made; they were inferior and couldn't stand up to the males, and would not be allowed to.

In Sirius and in Alpha Draconis, one of their most important colony, and on any conquered world, the male dominated the female. The Sirian people were sexual beings, and sex was basically what the male used the female for; for sex and as servants.

The women on the Sirian worlds were breeding machines, and the males wanted strong offspring that could defend and strengthen their bloodline so that they got status and power over others.

'Don't mess with my family, or...'

It was man eat man, or more accurately, wolf eat wolf, and a pure survival instinct.

Sometimes, when the wars of conquest were raging on each flank, women could be called in for military service as well and went to war under the patriarchal regime.

In his palace back in Sirius, the KHANUS KHANUR, the foremost King of Kings, sat on his throne for hours and hours, too furious to do anything except delegating orders, deciding who was going to be punished and who was not. Finally, he stood up from his throne with a deadly and crazy look in his eyes.

He called in his guards.

"Take me to the dungeon! Show me the prisoners of war! Show me the trophies!" he shouted.

The guards immediately escorted the King of Kings to the palace dungeon.

It was a very wet and cold place, lit up by a dim electronic light coming out directly from the stone walls. The palace was built on the top of a mountain, but the dungeon was underground and carved out directly from the hard mountain stone with the help of laser technology.

It was a very depressing place and exclusively housed enemies of the state, where they sat waiting to be executed; a big event which usually drew thousands and thousands of people to watch, especially as the execution was going to be overseen by the King of Kings himself. Now, however, the dungeon was empty, except for these prisoners of war.

He'd spared them because he needed to know more about this disgusting star race who dared to challenge the KHANUS KHANUR.

On their way down to the dungeons, a Royal Interrogator had been picked up, carrying the key to the locker room where his torture arsenal was located, which was outside the thick, heavy door that led to the steps, which continued down to the dungeon cells. Just in case, the Royal interrogator brought his most effective equipment down with him.

The KHANUS KHANUR, his guards, and the interrogator eventually stopped outside a big dungeon and stared into the faded light inside.

The King could see three prisoners in there, and they seemed to be in quite miserable shape. One of them seemed badly wounded, perhaps already dying, the other one sat quietly staring into the wall, while the third, who was a female reptilian, met the King's eyes without blinking.

The King of Kings found himself staring back into these black, ultra-deep eyes while a strange sensation came to his head.

He felt like these non-blinking eyes took him right through the dimensions and into the Great KHAA, the Great Void, which the King had traveled so many times, but always had respect for, and feared at the same time. So also now.

It was something with these eyes and this look that scared the hell out of him. He, the Great KHANUS KHANUR was frightened. It made him furious again, too ashamed to admit his 'weakness' in front of his people.

All of the sudden his fear deepened and he found himself mesmerized by those space-black eyes. He didn't know if it was in his imagination, but almost like a snake, the head of the female reptile started moving from left to right, right to left, and then in circles. The Sirian King noticed he lost control over both his body and his mind, and all he could do was to lean forward, towards the bars, slowly closing in on his strange prisoner.

This all occurred in a few seconds time, but it felt like he was in trance for an eternity.

Then everything happened in the blink of an eye. One of the guards ran into the King and violently pushed him aside. This took him out of his trance in an instance and he grabbed for his evaporator (a gun-like weapon that could fry a diamond in a second). But the rest happened before the King even had the chance to interfere.

Suddenly a hissing sound was heard; like a 'T-T'.

The Reptilian female spat like a cobra right in the face of the guard who had pushed the King out of target. The guard cried out in agony for half a second and fell dead or paralyzed to the floor. At the same time, a second guard had used his evaporator on the prisoner and killed her.

The King of Kings was in shock and just stared with his eyes open at the dead black body on the floor, paying no attention to the guard beside him, who now certainly was dead.

The remaining crew, happy to be alive, retreated quickly, out of target from the other two prisoners, and stared at each other.

"What the hell was that???" the King cried out.

The guard who had killed the female stepped forward, bowing deeply before his King before he spoke.

"I saw it, my King of Kings, I saw it," he said.

"This being seemed to hypnotize you and apparently, for some unknown reason, the guard saw what was to come, or he just reacted instinctively, because in the next moment this disgusting female spat venom right into his face! He went down instantly!"

"And why was I never told that these creatures could hypnotize and spit poison?" shouted the King, now furious again. "Someone must have noticed during the battles!"

In time, the King of Kings, much to his embarrassment, learned that not only was it the females alone who possessed this venom, but they had not even used it in battle, because they didn't find it necessary.

The Sirians had been no match for the Aryan air force.

But at this time the King didn't know that.



8.2 The Second Attacks

The greatly wounded Reptilian prisoner of war died under interrogation, so the only prisoner left from the first attack on the Orion Empire was carefully tortured and interrogated.

However, the Sirian King did not get much information from him either, except what the Orion prisoner volunteered without torture. He said that the Orion Empire is a peaceful empire and only goes to war if attacked.

He added that the King should think carefully before he attacked again, because the Queen could easily destroy the whole Sirian Empire. A much better option would be to sign a peace treaty with her and perhaps join the Empire, abiding to its peaceful rules.

The King just laughed at the suggestion and when no one seemed to be able to get any more information out of the prisoner, he was 'left to the wolves', literally speaking.

His body was eaten alive by a blood-thirsty audience.

The next attack on the Orion Empire was even more ferocious than the first. The Wolfen-Reptilian Overlords fought on pure adrenaline, determined to make as much damage as possible.

The KHANUS KHANUR's hollowed out planetoids showed up from nowhere in solar system after solar system belonging to the Orions, thinking they could take the worlds by surprise and conquer them to make their own empire stronger.

However, the Orions always seemed to know where they were going to show up next and were waiting for them.

The Sirians didn't stand a chance. Their asteroids and planetoids were shot to pieces by the Orion mighty war machinery, and after yet another defeat, the King of Kings had to withdraw again. For the first time during his long regime he felt weak and helpless. This was not good. A KHANUS KHANUR could never show weakness, or he'd be overthrown and killed, possibly by his one of his own sons.

So just to make sure, he sent his sons on missions far away from the Sirian throne, to solar systems many light-years away, just to keep them busy enough not to attack him.

He told his sons that they could descend to certain worlds and play around there as they pleased; something he knew they enjoyed.

'Playing around', however, was usually bad news for whomever lived on that planet.


8.3 The Peace Treaty

While the King of Kings was licking his wounds again, even more confused, furious, but also horrified for the first time in his life, the Orion Queen sat on her throne, pondering what was happening.

Although it didn't seem like it to the Sirian King, the Sirians had made a great impact on NEKH-T [def]. They were still no match for the Mighty Empire of Orion; the MAKH warriors had utterly defeated the Sirians in two major attacks and hugely decreased their warrior population.

However, the Queen knew that the Sirians almost certainly would try again, so what should she do? Destroy their entire civilization? That could be done, but nowadays, she preferred peaceful solutions when at all possible.

She didn't see them as a threat, but she wanted them away from PESH-METEN, knowing that whomever had control over the most commonly used passageway through the Milky Way Galaxy also had control over much of the Galaxy itself.

She did not want the Ninth Passageway to fall into the hands of the Sirian Lords.

Figure 3-5

Orion's Belt: Alnitak, Alnilam,

and Mintaka, Headquarters of the Orion Empire


No, she had a better idea.

First of all, she admired the skills and bravery of the Sirians. They were not as greatly trained as her own soldiers, but they were very strong, stubborn, and at least as ferocious as her own troops.

It would be a pity to let this race be destroyed, so why not have them not only join her Empire, but also be offered to work as Advanced Guards for her Empire?

So the Orion Queen invited the King of Kings of the Mighty Sirian Overlords to the Orion Court in Mintaka for a 'discussion', royalty to royalty. His own, and the safety of his guards, was guaranteed.

The Queen knew exactly how to talk the KHANUS KHANUR, the foremost King of Kings, into this agreement. She told him how impressed she was by his war tactics and the bravery and strength of his warriors. His people were true KHAA Warriors, she said, only comparable to the Aryans themselves.

But she also showed them her own war machine in its fullest (without giving out any details of how it all worked. She didn't want them to be able to copy her weaponry). The Sirian King was very impressed and realized that the Aryans were way ahead of his own people, and that the Sirians could not match the military strength of the Orion Queens.

Then the Queen started talking about the treaty.

She suggested that the King and his men joined the Orion Empire in an alliance. If he and his people accepted, they would be given significant territories in the outskirts of Sector 9, get access to some major star routes, and the King's warriors would be granted the title 'The Queen's Advanced Guards'; they would be her DAKH warriors. She also promised them free expansion of their own territories and continue doing as they pleased, so long as it did not get in the way of the Orion Empire itself, and they needed to stay away from PESH-METEN.

The Sirian Empire would also join forces with the Aryans, which would strengthen the Sirian status in the eyes of any future enemies.

This last part was a compromise on the Queen's part; she knew she couldn't stop the Sirians from having their ways when came to conquering space, unless she wanted to terminate them.

In exchange the Queen demanded obedience and loyalty to the throne of the Queen. The Sirians would be obligated to execute her will, but on the other hand, the Sirian Empire would always have backup from Orion when needed and they would fight side by side. Sirius and all its colonies would belong to the Orion Empire, but the Sirian Kings were allowed to run their own Empire as they wanted, if they followed the basic Aryans laws and rules.

Then they both sat silent for a while and the Queen noticed the hesitation in the King's eyes, but she also noticed that he could see the advantage of an alliance.

After a few additional moments of silence, the Queen gave the two punch lines:

  • if the King accepted, she promised not to tell other star races who easily she defeated the Sirians

  • she also promised not to terminate the Sirian Empire utterly and entirely with her superior weapons

The King's eyes froze; he knew that the Queen was serious, and moreover - she was right!

And last, but not the least, the Queen suggested some 'good will marriages' between Orion and Sirius. She said that this would hopefully bring the two species together and show both the Sirians and the Aryans that there now was a bond between them.

The Great Divine Marriage would stand between the Queen and the King of Kings himself, him that Sitchin and others call ANU.

In addition, she offered one of her daughters to ANU's son of true Sirian blood. The daughter became known as NIN-LIL, and ANU's son was the infamous EN-LIL.

Additionally, the Queen wanted one daughter on each throne in the Sirian Empire, as each star system in the Sirian Empire had its own King. She wanted to make sure she had control over the situation and could get reports on what happened in every corner of the Sirian Empire at all times.

The King of Kings would reign together with the Queen herself and would be allowed to become pretty independent so long as he followed the agreement and abided to Orion laws and policies. He and his people were also free to travel anywhere within the Orion Empire, and the Queen emphasized that all these marriages were just 'business deals', no more, no less.

Her thoughts were that if she could keep an eye of the King, and her daughters could move to Sirius occupied worlds and keep an eye on the ruling King and his often rebellious offspring and report back to her, she would have the situation pretty much under control.

The kings and their royal offspring were also offered S-MA to extend their longevity considerably.

The Queen's daughter would then become the Queen of Sirius and ANU's son would become the KHANUS KHANUR, thus keeping ANU's title once it was time for him to take over after the old King. As part of the deal, however, was that no descendent of the throne of the King of Kings could ascend to wear the title unless he was born from a royal daughter of Orion.

And all Priestess-daughters had to be given full status as family members in the Sirian Royal Courts. [10]

This was a guarantee for the Queen that the Kings would follow Orion policy and stick to the agreement. And for the Kings it was a guarantee that no one could attack the Sirian Empire without getting assistance from Orion. She presented it as a win-win alliance, knowing that she would get the most ferocious and ruthless warriors in the galaxy as her Advanced Guards. After all, it was purely a 'business deal'.

The King was flattered by her admiration for his Empire, and also felt that there was soundness in the Queen's appraisal. And he couldn't deny that life extension was quite a tempting offer.

ANU finally spoke. He had, according to Sirian tradition where men took as many wives they could handle, already a lot of women in his 'possession', and therefore had no moral problems going along with the plan. The Queen had showed him earlier how the Universe is feminine in nature and that she, the Queen, was like an extension of the Goddess, and therefore the heir of the Universe.

This was what finally had the King of Sirius make his decision. He figured that if he married the Queen, he would be the heir of the Universe as well, and the Lord of the KHAA - the Void.

And he had to admit that the Orion females were stunningly beautiful. He could never reach such high status on his own, and he knew it. He also liked the idea that his Elite Troops would be the Advanced Guards in the 'Court of the Mother', and that he got quite an attractive sector of the Milky Way Galaxy to oversee.

The Sirian King sat back in his chair - he was pleased and thought he got the better deal.

The Queen smiled too, knowing he was wrong.


9. The Seven Sisters

When we hear the term 'Seven Sisters', we often think about the Pleiadian star cluster.

In Greek mythology, the Seven Sisters were companions of Artemis, which already there connects them to Orion (see previous paper, 'The Orion Empire'). They were, according to the same mythology, daughters of the Titan Atlas and the sea nymph Pleione, where 'sea' often refers to the Universe of the Mother Goddess (the 96%).

The Seven Sisters in the Pleiadians star system are: Maia (the eldest), Electra, Taygete, Alcyone (our central sun), Celaeno, Sterope, and Merope, who is the youngest, and wooed by Orion. She was said to become mortal and 'faded away'.

The constellation of Orion is still said to pursue the Seven Sisters across the night sky. The myth goes that it was Zeus, the ruler of the Greek Gods, who immortalized the Seven Sisters and made them into a star cluster, which we still can enjoy today as the Pleiades in the night sky.

Interestingly enough, according to Callimachus,[11][12] the great Greek poet, critic, and scholar, the Seven Sisters were daughters of an Amazonian Queen, and credited with inventing ritual dances and nighttime festivals.

That would correspond pretty well with Aryan shamanism, as described in previous papers.

Figure 3-6

The Seven Sisters doing a ritual dance,

from an artist's view.


In fact, the Seven Sisters were indeed the daughters of the 'Amazonian' Queen of Orion, and probably her firstborns.

They were the ones who were appointed Administrators of some of the conquered worlds in the Great Galactic Wars.

Figure 3-7

The Seven Sisters star cluster in the Pleiades

(the constellation of Taurus)


The Pleiadian star cluster is in the constellation of Taurus (the Bull).

We discussed in an earlier paper how Orion with his club is chasing the Bull (Taurus), but no such conflict is known in our mythology. However, we know from the Pleiadians, channeled by Barbara Marciniak, that the Pleiades have been 'rebellious' on and off throughout cosmic history, and this may very well be why Orion is chasing her in an attempt to make her 'come to her senses'.

We know, from listening to the Pleiadians, that they are from our future, and are part of a 'living hell' over in the Pleiades in the future time in which they are residing. This group of channels are supposedly a rebel group who is trying to steer things back to a more humane society in their own star systems.

The Seven Sisters, and all other Administrators of the different Aryan colonies, were headed by daughters of the Queen. In our folklore we call them the TITANS. They have also had a great impact on human history in ways unknown to most people.

As usual, when there are big secrets, the Sirian Overlords have more than one finger in it.


10. Peace in Orion Again - Sort of...

With the peace treaty, the Orion Empire expanded again, both territorially and technologically.

The Sirian Lords had their own unique technology, which they now shared with the Aryans and vice versa, so the two empires merged their knowledge for the benefit of both.

Sirius still remained the headquarters of the Sirian Empire, and their colonies, such as that of Alpha Draconis, remained colonies of the Sirians. To get a picture of how this works, we may look at the Orion Empire as Planet Earth with all its different countries. Now let's say there was a Queen and a King ruling over all the countries in the world; a type of One World Government.

Still, each country (star system) had its own rulers and was thus quite self governed although also answering to Orions laws and regulations, business and trade etc; similar to the European Union.

Sometimes each star system (country in our allegory) had their own colonies in other star systems as well, such as the Sirians having colonies in Alpha Draconis. So, when a star system joined the Orion Empire, they were still sovereign in most ways, except they had to follow the overall rules, quite like our own EU member countries.

So the Sirian Lords still minded their own business, but could anytime be summoned to the Mother's Court to serve as her Advanced Guards, when needed.

Peace now reigned again in the Orion Empire - kind of. The Sirians, who continued their conquest of space and expanded their own Empire, were often at war with other star races, but the Aryans rarely participated, as there was no need.

Also, at one point in time, an old, powerful enemy of the Orion Empire became a problem again and a short war broke out. The Sirians immediately came to Aryan assistance and Orion and Sirius fought side by side for the first, and perhaps the last time.

Their joined forces were undefeatable. The ferocious Aryan elite warriors and the Sirian Overlords with their hollowed-out craft fighting together were overpowering for any enemy, and this previously so powerful enemy of Orion was quickly defeated and the survivors gave up and has not, to my knowledge, bothered Orion again.

The Orion-Sirian Peace Treaty seemed to work pretty well for both parties, from their perspective.

However, the Orion Queen would learn the hard way that the Sirian Overlords were not, when it really came down to it, to be trusted.


11. Some Thoughts and Thoughts Aside

When people think of the Great Galactic Wars, they think of this abundance of star races involved in it, fighting each other; not just the few I've brought up here. Indeed, I've only mentioned two races by name; the Aryans and the Sirians.

There was more than that going on - much more.

I described some of it in 'Level I', and the paper I wrote on it, 'Genesis Paper #1: Human Origins and the Living Library', is telling a little bit more about the Lyran Wars etc.

But there was more than that, even, and the reason I am not bringing it up in details, neither in 'Level I' and here in 'Level II' is that these wars are not directly involving, or leading up to, our own history of Earth. 'Level II' has as its purpose to narrow down and pinpoint what happened from the beginning of this Universe and all the way up to present time, in something that could, for simplicity, be called a timeline which led directly to the creation of mankind and our development as a species.

The rest I have either left out, or not researched well enough to present it.

But I think that researchers and 'Experiencers' [def], such as Anton Parks, has much of it down quite right, although some of the characters and places are mixed up. This is not necessarily 'disinformation', but are probably serious attempts to get it right. It is not easy, because it's a jungle to go through before we have some information that holds water.

Mr. Parks is definitely a must read with all this in mind, because between the lines of what he writes you can sense the true story. The English translation, with long excerpts, making it consistent, and interviews with Parks can be found here.

Many of the wars in the Universe in the early days were the 'War of the Genders'. This may seem odd to the reader, but this is a universal problem, which has led to much killing and suffering, and the Sirians have had a hand in almost all of them. Males have tried to find the secrets of the females, tortured them, and used them in the most horrific rituals to steal their power.

The females, on the other hand, have often refused to give it to them; they even created their own languages that could not be spoken by males. It was called Emešà,[13] and was kept as a well hidden secret between female Priestesses, so they could communicate their secrets with each other.

The males had their own language, which was called Emenita,[14] but was spoken by females as well when they communicated with males.

The females started the get back on the males, sometimes viciously, and wars broke out that terminated whole species to the last individual. There were times when the Universe, at least in our sector, was not a very friendly place. Fortunately, this seems to have changed overall, although some wars are still raging out there.

If the reader wants to know what's going on in the Heavens, the easiest way to find out, without even having to do much research, is to see what is happening down here on Earth and translate it; as above, so below.

Other than that, most wars have been about real estate. Each planet is looked at as 'real estate', and Creator Gods or conquerors who come there first own the star system.

If they are ethical Creator Gods, they first ask for permission to create in a particular star system, but a star race on a conquest doesn't always bother, or doesn't yet know the universal laws, because they did things out of order.

We are meant to become a peaceful, wise race before we start reaching for the stars, and learn how to create without harm to others, but not all species have the patience to wait that long, or their development as a star race is such that they become warrior-like space farers instead.

                                                                 HIDDEN HISTORY
















By Robert Morning Sky

Condensed from Robert Morning Sky’s book

from Perspectives Magazine

March/April 1996

from VJEnterprises Website

recovered through WayBackMachine Website

Spanish version


The Suppressed History of Planet Earth


I am called ’Morning Sky.’ I grew up hearing the stories my grandfather told of a Space Being he helped rescue.

My grandfather was one of six young Native Americans who witnessed the crash of a spaceship in 1947, shortly after the now-famous Roswell incident. When they reached the site, they found one being still alive.

They took him back to their camp where they hid and nursed him back to health. They called him ’Star Elder’ out of respect; as time passed he revealed his name.

He was called Bek’Ti. He revealed to them the history of mankind and the planet Earth.

In the late 1960’s, when I started college, I found myself entertaining the possibility that these stories might not be true. I thus enrolled in Religious Studies, an independent study program that would allow me an opportunity to research ancient records to prove or disprove the many stories of Star Elder.

I submitted to my Religious Studies professor a thesis that summed up my three years of research. It was entitled "Terra Papers - Hidden History of Planet Earth." Within days, he had labeled it "a work of blasphemy and outrage!" It nearly got me thrown out of school.

Having had no success in the academic field, I decided to contact then existing UFO organizations and researchers. The general response was to label the work,

"the stuff of myth and legend of Native Americans, not suitable to the serious study of a scientific phenomena."

The total rejection made me angry. For nearly thirty years, I refused to even pick up a book on UFO’s or New Age Phenomena. I religiously refused to read or listen to what is out there.

Circumstances have changed. My Grandfather is gone, but not before he had elicited a promise from me to try once more to tell the story.

The history of mankind and Earth as revealed by Bek’Ti is both exciting and frightening. Man’s creation and his place in the galaxy is made clear, but in the process, Man’s nobility and pride are injured. The abduction phenomena and the attending grey beings are integral parts of humanity’s history, and explained against a framework of the Star Beings’ purposes for mankind.

The sources of Man’s religions and the origins of legendary figures like Zeus, Osiris, Isis, the Minotaur and a number of other ’mythological’ beings are explained and also placed into the framework of Earth’s history.


The Story of Man’s Creation


In our galaxy are billions of Star Beings.

Humanoid races are the rule, not the exception. These races descended from many life forms: reptiles, insects, dinosaurs, birds and other life forms mankind cannot begin to imagine.

One of the oldest Star Races in this sector of the universe is the reptilian Ari-An which descended from dinosaur ancestors in the star system of Orion. Ruled by Queens, they created the most powerful empire in this galaxy. Ari-An warriors were unmatched for ferocity and bravery, and the Ari-An Empire was unmatched in power and size.

Millions of years of countless battles had allowed this Empire to develop advanced war strategies. Among these, the Ari-An practiced "conditioning" or "reprogramming" to control conquered populations and make them assets rather than liabilities. Enemies became obedient servants of the reptilian queens’ throne. In this way, the Ari-Ans eliminated resistance.

An unexpected evolution of another race in the star system Sirius posed a threat to the Ari-An Empire. Though not as old or as advanced as the reptilians, the warriors of the Kanus Empire, a doglike race (similar to wolves) made up for any lack with their fierceness. Even the most disciplined of the Ari-An warriors feared these vicious and barbaric Sirian warriors, who stopped to devour the flesh of their enemies on the battlefield.

Rapid advancement of the Sirian warriors threatened the very existence of the Ari-An Empire. As a result, the queens approached the Sirian kings to offer an alliance. A treaty was agreed upon that delineated which sectors of the galaxy each empire was to rule and, for a time, the warriors of both empires fought side-by-side.

With the birth of a new star system was born, the Sirian King was quick to claim it.

As the Sirians began to exploit its resources, this new system became an outpost for both the Ari-An and Sirian Empires, and the power and wealth for both continued to grow. But eventually war broke out again, this time among rival Sirian kings. In the end, Ari-An forces joined King An. Entire worlds held by the opposition were totally destroyed, including their moons and colonies.

Much later, King An sent his son Prince Ea and daughter, Princess Nin-Hur-Sag (both genetic scientists) to rebuild the destroyed world of Eridu and once again tap into the valuable and much needed resources found there. They successfully restored the atmosphere; refilled the seas with life; recreated plants, trees and flowers; and hybridized many different kinds of creatures.

The planet Eridu (Earth) was reborn.

New creatures were produced to inhabit the planet. One such creature, Apa-Mus, was an ape-beast hybrid whose only purpose was to serve and to slave in the fields and mines. But this beast was different from the others. It could understand orders and could communicate. Princess Nin-Hur-Sag had genetically engineered the ape-beast hybrid by using her own DNA. The beast grew in intelligence and began to teach his own quickly multiplying offspring.

When another species of genetically engineered workers - underground - dwelling Sheti Lizards, revolted and seized power, the ruling Star Beings fled from the planet. With the opposition out of the way, the Sheti used mind-control and programming techniques they learned from their masters to alter the memories of the remaining Star Being descendants. Mankind’s knowledge of Star Beings was replaced with myths and legends.

Sheti dominance has been and continues to be challenged by many other star races attempting to regain control of Earth -- and mankind -- for their own purposes.

The struggle for power goes on.


Overthrow Attempts - Past, Present and Future


The reptilian Ari-An race has made several attempts to overthrow the present power on Earth.

In the early 20th century, the world-wide Aryan movement nearly succeeded in conquering the entire "docile" world. If, as the author suggests, they are continuing in their efforts, new movements in the supremacy groups will appear. Reptiles will appear in all aspects of the media as friendly or heroic beings, fighting on man’s behalf. Reptilian superheroes will become children’s role models.

Religious uprisings have been staged throughout Earth’s history by the Sirians.

The Inquisition, the Papal Wars, the numerous "Messiahs" and the "Miracle Sightings" were engineered by them to bring mankind back into their influence. If they, too, are trying to take over the Earth as the author suggests, then a return to fundamentalism will also occur, as will the increasing appearance of angels and miraculous occurrences.

Patterns show on-going efforts to direct the people of Planet Earth and also predict upcoming events:

Mankind will soon be surrounded with images of asteroids and falling fiery comets. Black pigs will be seen everywhere as will angelic figures and miracles.

Dinosaurs will become children’s heroes and violence will be the foundation of their play. New airborne diseases, immune to existing treatments, will surface.

NASA will be rendered weak and impotent, if not terminated.

A galactic war of conquest rages over our heads. Earth - and Man - are the prize.


Crop Circles - Visual Communications


In an attempt to communicate with the descendants of Star Beings - especially those who are able to remember the "clues" - visual signals are being sent in the form of crop circles.

Signs meant for the Sirian descendants usually have a striking resemblance to ancient Egyptian glyphs, football-shaped designs, circle-in-cross forms, or circles with a dot in the center. They may also appear as mathematical formulations.


Crop circles from the Ari-Ans often have a snake-like form, or insect or bug-like creatures. Whatever the form, crop circles are signs to the descendants that they have not been forgotten.

As a signal that a starship has been dispatched to the solar system and Earth, images of enormous planetary starships and crews comprised of heroic "saviors" of mankind and the Earth will be everywhere.

To counter this image of a "good" heavenly body, images of falling asteroids and crashing comets will be used as justification for aiming anti-asteroid missiles skyward for "defensive" purposes.


Forms of Control


Meanwhile, to maintain control of mankind, the Sheti have introduced new devices to continue the bombarding us with a numbing and controlling electronic blanket.

Many of these electronic instruments are carried on the person:

Tape and CD players with headphones, virtual reality gear, pagers, pocket games, cellular phones, beepers, etc. are now commonplace.

Drugs of all kinds, legal and illegal (including alcohol, tobacco and narcotics) are part of the control program to keep mankind docile. Behavior modification to prevent us from being motivated to fight for ourselves, will require that no human being be allowed status as hero.

Those who do not fight back, but endure great suffering will become the new "heroes" and role models:

victims, martyrs, tortured POWs, and people who die in service to their country.

Population control will increase in intensity and only the select will be allowed to continue.

Disappearances and abductions will increase, especially of women and young children. New airborne diseases will appear. Obesity will increase, sexual dysfunction will increase in males, and female menstrual cycles will decrease from 28 days to 25 days.

To maintain control of mankind and keep us stranded on Earth, NASA will be eliminated or severely restricted in its scope.

Any evidence of extraterrestrial life will be strictly suppressed and denied.



Mankind’s Hope - Royal Blood


The battle lines have been drawn for a coming galactic war for the domination of planet Earth.

As long as mankind seeks salvation "out there," he paves the way for beings vying to become his Overlords. But mankind has another option.


Though born of beasts and bred to serve, mankind was created by the genetic scientists, Prince EA and Princess Nin-Hur-Sag using their own DNA and their own royal blood. This royal line of Sirian Blood entitles mankind to claim Earth its own. This is the story that has been suppressed, the truth that was kept hidden.

As long as mankind accepts Overlords and Gods, we accept an existence of servitude. When we finally remember that our own kingdom has been taken away, when we finally look to ourselves as our own Overlord or God, then and only then will we be free of extraterrestrials.

The author asks the reader to investigate for himself the information presented here. Accept none of it, challenge all of it. Decide for yourself if the words of Bek’Ti are true.

You are your own god,

you are the master of your destiny,

if you can remember The Truth.

Note

Robert Morning Sky travels almost constantly, mesmerizing audiences large and small around the world.

He demonstrates traditional Native American dances, then tells this story in living rooms, theatres, in school auditoriums, on radio and TV shows and in personal interviews - anywhere people will listen to him. He has quickly become a favorite speaker at Expo’s and UFO conventions. His words resonate with truth.

People receive answers to far more questions than they could ever think to ask, and they come back to hear him again and again.


Morning Sky has been subjected to several burglaries at his office with confidential files and computer equipment stolen. His travel trailer was vandalized. His life has been threatened. He has suffered great losses, but he made a promise to his grandfather, and that promise will not be broken, no matter the cost.

This version of Robert Morning Sky’s "Terra Papers - Hidden History of Planet Earth" was condensed especially for Perceptions by Betty Bland who lives and works in Seattle.







                                                                    True hebrews

 


Spreading the Truth
Deuteronomy
Chapter
28
Deuteronomy 28.org
[[PASTING TABLES IS NOT SUPPORTED]]
Hosea 4:6 My people are destroyed for lack of knowledge:
The Awakening of the "True" Israelites
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. Your very salvation is based on knowing all this information!

Flat Earth Theory

 

Historical development Ancient Near East 
Imago Mundi Babylonian map, the oldest known world map, 6th century BC Babylonia

In early Egyptian[7] and Mesopotamian thought the world was portrayed as a flat disk floating in the ocean. A similar model is found in the Homeric account from the 8th century BC in which "Okeanos, the personified body of water surrounding the circular surface of the Earth, is the begetter of all life and possibly of all gods."The Israelites had a similar cosmology, with the earth as a flat disc floating on water beneath an arced firmament separating it from the heavens.

The Pyramid Texts and Coffin Texts reveal that the ancient Egyptians believed Nun (the Ocean) was a circular body surrounding nbwt (a term meaning "dry lands" or "Islands"), and therefore believed in a similar Ancient Near Eastern circular earth cosmography surrounded by water.[

Ancient Mediterranean[edit]Poets[edit]

Both Homer[13] and Hesiod[14] described a flat disc cosmography on the Shield of Achilles.[15][16] This poetic tradition of an earth-encircling (gaiaokhos) sea (Oceanus) and a flat disc also appears in Stasinus of Cyprus,[17] Mimnermus,[18] Aeschylus,[19] and Apollonius Rhodius.[20]

Homer's description of the flat disc cosmography on the shield of Achilles with the encircling ocean is repeated far later in Quintus Smyrnaeus' Posthomerica (4th century AD), which continues the narration of the Trojan War.[21]

Philosophers[edit]
Possible rendering of Anaximander's world map[22]

Several pre-Socratic philosophers believed that the world was flat: Thales (c. 550 BC) according to several sources,[23] and Leucippus (c. 440 BC) and Democritus (c. 460 – 370 BC) according to Aristotle.[24][25][26]

Thales thought the earth floated in water like a log.[27] It has been argued, however, that Thales actually believed in a round Earth.[28][29] Anaximander (c. 550 BC) believed the Earth was a short cylinder with a flat, circular top that remained stable because it was the same distance from all things.[30][31] Anaximenes of Miletus believed that "the earth is flat and rides on air; in the same way the sun and the moon and the other heavenly bodies, which are all fiery, ride the air because of their flatness."[32] Xenophanes of Colophon (c. 500 BC) thought that the Earth was flat, with its upper side touching the air, and the lower side extending without limit.[33]

Belief in a flat Earth continued into the 5th century BC. Anaxagoras (c. 450 BC) agreed that the Earth was flat,[34] and his pupil Archelaus believed that the flat Earth was depressed in the middle like a saucer, to allow for the fact that the Sun does not rise and set at the same time for everyone.[35]

Historians[edit]

Hecataeus of Miletus believed the earth was flat and surrounded by water.[36] Herodotus in his Histories ridiculed the belief that water encircled the world,[37] yet most classicists agree he still believed the earth was flat because of his descriptions of literal "ends" or "edges" of the earth.[38]

Ancient India[edit]

Ancient Hindu, Jain, and Buddhist cosmology held that the Earth is a disc consisting of four continents grouped around a central mountain (Mount Meru) like the petals of a flower. An outer ocean surrounds these continents.[39] This view of traditional Buddhist and Jain cosmology depicts the cosmos as a vast, oceanic disk (of the magnitude of a small planetary system), bounded by mountains, in which the continents are set as small islands.[39]

Norse and Germanic[edit]

The ancient Norse and Germanic peoples believed in a flat Earth cosmography with the Earth surrounded by an ocean, with the axis mundi, a world tree (Yggdrasil), or pillar (Irminsul) in the centre.[40][41] The Norse believed that in the world-encircling ocean sat a snake called Jormungandr.[42] In the Norse creation account preserved in Gylfaginning (VIII) it is stated that during the creation of the earth, an impassable sea was placed around the earth like a ring:

...And Jafnhárr said: "Of the blood, which ran and welled forth freely out of his wounds, they made the sea, when they had formed and made firm the earth together, and laid the sea in a ring round. about her; and it may well seem a hard thing to most men to cross over it."[43]

The late Norse Konungs skuggsjá, on the other hand, states that:

...If you take a lighted candle and set it in a room, you may expect it to light up the entire interior, unless something should hinder, though the room be quite large. But if you take an apple and hang it close to the flame, so near that it is heated, the apple will darken nearly half the room or even more. However, if you hang the apple near the wall, it will not get hot; the candle will light up the whole house; and the shadow on the wall where the apple hangs will be scarcely half as large as the apple itself. From this you may infer that the earth-circle is round like a ball and not equally near the sun at every point. But where the curved surface lies nearest the sun's path, there will the greatest heat be; and some of the lands that lie continuously under the unbroken rays cannot be inhabited."[44]

Ancient China[edit]
Further information: Chinese astronomy

In ancient China, the prevailing belief was that the Earth was flat and square, while the heavens were round,[45] an assumption virtually unquestioned until the introduction of European astronomy in the 17th century.[46][47][48] The English sinologist Cullen emphasizes the point that there was no concept of a round Earth in ancient Chinese astronomy:

Chinese thought on the form of the earth remained almost unchanged from early times until the first contacts with modern science through the medium of Jesuit missionaries in the seventeenth century. While the heavens were variously described as being like an umbrella covering the earth (the Kai Tian theory), or like a sphere surrounding it (the Hun Tian theory), or as being without substance while the heavenly bodies float freely (the Hsüan yeh theory), the earth was at all times flat, although perhaps bulging up slightly.[49]

The model of an egg was often used by Chinese astronomers such as Zhang Heng (78–139 AD) to describe the heavens as spherical:

The heavens are like a hen's egg and as round as a crossbow bullet; the earth is like the yolk of the egg, and lies in the centre.[50]

This analogy with a curved egg led some modern historians, notably Joseph Needham, to conjecture that Chinese astronomers were, after all, aware of the Earth's sphericity. The egg reference, however, was rather meant to clarify the relative position of the flat earth to the heavens:

In a passage of Zhang Heng's cosmogony not translated by Needham, Zhang himself says: "Heaven takes its body from the Yang, so it is round and in motion. Earth takes its body from the Yin, so it is flat and quiescent". The point of the egg analogy is simply to stress that the earth is completely enclosed by heaven, rather than merely covered from above as the Kai Tian describes. Chinese astronomers, many of them brilliant men by any standards, continued to think in flat-earth terms until the seventeenth century; this surprising fact might be the starting-point for a re-examination of the apparent facility with which the idea of a spherical earth found acceptance in fifth-century BC Greece.[51]

Further examples cited by Needham supposed to demonstrate dissenting voices from the ancient Chinese consensus actually refer without exception to the Earth being square, not to it being flat.[52] Accordingly, the 13th-century scholar Li Ye, who argued that the movements of the round heaven would be hindered by a square Earth,[45] did not advocate a spherical Earth, but rather that its edge should be rounded off so as to be circular.[53]

As noted in the book Huainanzi,[54] in the 2nd century BC Chinese astronomers effectively inverted Eratosthenes' calculation of the curvature of the Earth to calculate the height of the sun above the earth. By assuming the earth was flat, they arrived at a distance of 100,000 li (approximately 200,000 km), which is a value far short of the correct distance of 150 million km.

Declining support for the flat Earth[edit]
Further information: Spherical Earth and History of geodesy
Ancient Mediterranean[edit]
When a ship is at the horizon, its lower part is obscured due to the curvature of the Earth.
Semi-circular shadow of Earth on the Moonduring the phases of a lunar eclipse

In The Histories, written in the mid-5th century BC, Herodotus cast doubt on a report of the sun observed shining from the north. He stated that the phenomenon was observed during a circumnavigation of Africa undertaken by Phoenician explorers employed by Egyptian pharaoh Necho II c. 610–595 BC (The Histories, 4.42) who claimed to have had the sun on their right when circumnavigating in a clockwise direction. To modern historians aware of a spherical Earth, these details confirm the truth of the Phoenicians’ report.

After the Greek philosophers Pythagoras, in the 6th century BC, and Parmenides, in the 5th, recognized that the Earth is spherical,[55] the spherical view spread rapidly in the Greek world. Around 330 BC, Aristotle maintained on the basis of physical theory and observational evidence that the Earth was spherical, and reported on an estimate on the circumference.[56] The Earth's circumference was first determined around 240 BC by Eratosthenes.[57] By the second century CE, Ptolemy had derivedhis maps from a globe and developed the system of latitude, longitude, and climes. His Almagest was written in Greek and only translated into Latin in the 11th century from Arabic translations.

The Terrestrial Sphere of Crates of Mallus (c. 150 BC)

In the 2nd century BC, Crates of Mallus devised a terrestrial sphere that divided the Earth into four continents, separated by great rivers or oceans, with people presumed living in each of the four regions.[58] Opposite the oikumene, the inhabited world, were the antipodes, considered unreachable both because of an intervening torrid zone (equator) and the ocean. This took a strong hold on the medieval mind.

Lucretius (1st. c. BC) opposed the concept of a spherical Earth, because he considered that an infinite universe had no center towards which heavy bodies would tend. Thus, he thought the idea of animals walking around topsy-turvy under the Earth was absurd.[59][60] By the 1st century AD, Pliny the Elder was in a position to claim that everyone agrees on the spherical shape of Earth,[61] though disputes continued regarding the nature of the antipodes, and how it is possible to keep the ocean in a curved shape. Pliny also considered the possibility of an imperfect sphere, "...shaped like a pinecone."[61]

In late antiquity such widely read encyclopedists as Macrobius and Martianus Capella (both 5th century CE) discussed the circumference of the sphere of the Earth, its central position in the universe, the difference of the seasons in northern and southern hemispheres, and many other geographical details.[62] In his commentary on Cicero's Dream of Scipio, Macrobius described the Earth as a globe of insignificant size in comparison to the remainder of the cosmos.[62]

Early Christian Church[edit]

During the early Church period, the spherical view continued to be widely held, with some notable exceptions.[63]

Lactantius, Christian writer and advisor to the first Christian Roman Emperor, Constantine, ridiculed the notion of the Antipodes, inhabited by people "whose footsteps are higher than their heads". After presenting some arguments he attributes to advocates for a spherical heaven and Earth, he writes:

But if you inquire from those who defend these marvellous fictions, why all things do not fall into that lower part of the heaven, they reply that such is the nature of things, that heavy bodies are borne to the middle, and that they are all joined together towards the middle, as we see spokes in a wheel; but that the bodies that are light, as mist, smoke, and fire, are borne away from the middle, so as to seek the heaven. I am at a loss what to say respecting those who, when they have once erred, consistently persevere in their folly, and defend one vain thing by another.[64]

The influential theologian and philosopher Saint Augustine, one of the four Great Church Fathers of the Western Church, similarly objected to the "fable" of an inhabited Antipodes:

But as to the fable that there are Antipodes, that is to say, men on the opposite side of the earth, where the sun rises when it sets to us, men who walk with their feet opposite ours that is on no ground credible. And, indeed, it is not affirmed that this has been learned by historical knowledge, but by scientific conjecture, on the ground that the earth is suspended within the concavity of the sky, and that it has as much room on the one side of it as on the other: hence they say that the part that is beneath must also be inhabited. But they do not remark that, although it be supposed or scientifically demonstrated that the world is of a round and spherical form, yet it does not follow that the other side of the earth is bare of water; nor even, though it be bare, does it immediately follow that it is peopled. For Scripture, which proves the truth of its historical statements by the accomplishment of its prophecies, gives no false information; and it is too absurd to say, that some men might have taken ship and traversed the whole wide ocean, and crossed from this side of the world to the other, and that thus even the inhabitants of that distant region are descended from that one first man.[65]

The view generally accepted by scholars of Augustine's work is that he shared the common view of his contemporaries that the Earth is spherical,[66] in line with his endorsement of science in De Genesi ad litteram.[67] That view was challenged by noted Augustine scholar Leo Ferrari, who concluded that

he was familiar with the Greek theory of a spherical earth, nevertheless, (following in the footsteps of his fellow North African, Lactantius), he was firmly convinced that the earth was flat, was one of the two biggest bodies in existence and that it lay at the bottom of the universe. Apparently Augustine saw this picture as more useful for scriptural exegesis than the global earth at the centre of an immense universe.[68]

Ferrari's interpretation was questioned by the historian of science, Phillip Nothaft, who considers that in his scriptural commentaries Augustine was not endorsing any particular cosmological model.[69]

Cosmas Indicopleustes' world view – flat earth in a Tabernacle

Diodorus of Tarsus, a leading figure in the School of Antioch and mentor of John Chrysostom, may have argued for a flat Earth; however, Diodorus' opinion on the matter is known only from a later criticism.[70] Chrysostom, one of the four Great Church Fathers of the Eastern Church and Archbishop of Constantinople, explicitly espoused the idea, based on scripture, that the Earth floats miraculously on the water beneath the firmament.[71] Athanasius the Great, Church Father and Patriarch of Alexandria, expressed a similar view in Against the Heathen.[72]

Christian Topography (547) by the Alexandrian monk Cosmas Indicopleustes, who had travelled as far as Sri Lanka and the source of the Blue Nile, is now widely considered the most valuable geographical document of the early medieval age, although it received relatively little attention from contemporaries. In it, the author repeatedly expounds the doctrine that the universe consists of only two places, the Earth below the firmament and heaven above it. Carefully drawing on arguments from scripture, he describes the Earth as a rectangle, 400 day's journey long by 200 wide, surrounded by four oceans and enclosed by four massive walls which support the firmament. The spherical Earth theory is contemptuously dismissed as "pagan".[73][74][75]

Severian, Bishop of Gabala (d. 408), wrote that the Earth is flat and the sun does not pass under it in the night, but "travels through the northern parts as if hidden by a wall".[76] Basil of Caesarea (329–379) argued that the matter was theologically irrelevant.[77]

Early Middle Ages[edit]

Early medieval Christian writers in the early Middle Ages felt little urge to assume flatness of the earth, though they had fuzzy impressions of the writings of Ptolemy, Aristotle, and relied more on Pliny.[78]

9th-century Macrobian cosmic diagram showing the sphere of the Earth at the center (globus terrae)

With the end of Roman civilization, Western Europe entered the Middle Ages with great difficulties that affected the continent's intellectual production. Most scientific treatises of classical antiquity (in Greek) were unavailable, leaving only simplified summaries and compilations. Still, many textbooks of the Early Middle Ages supported the sphericity of the Earth. For example: some early medieval manuscripts of Macrobius include maps of the Earth, including the antipodes, zonal maps showing the Ptolemaic climates derived from the concept of a spherical Earth and a diagram showing the Earth (labeled as globus terrae, the sphere of the Earth) at the center of the hierarchically ordered planetary spheres.[79] Further examples of such medieval diagrams can be found in medieval manuscripts of the Dream of Scipio. In the Carolingian era, scholars discussed Macrobius's view of the antipodes. One of them, the Irish monkDungal, asserted that the tropical gap between our habitable region and the other habitable region to the south was smaller than Macrobius had believed.[80]

12th-century T and O maprepresenting the inhabited world as described by Isidore of Seville in hisEtymologiae (chapter 14, de terra et partibus)

Europe's view of the shape of the Earth in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages may be best expressed by the writings of early Christian scholars:

  • Boethius (c. 480–524), who also wrote a theological treatise On the Trinity, repeated the Macrobian model of the Earth in the center of a spherical cosmos in his influential, and widely translated, Consolation of Philosophy.[81]
  • Bishop Isidore of Seville (560–636) taught in his widely read encyclopedia, the Etymologies diverse views such as that the Earth "resembles a wheel"[82] resembling Anaximander in language and the map that he provided. This was widely interpreted as referring to a flat disc-shaped Earth.[83][84] An illustration from Isidore's De Natura Rerum shows the five zones of the earth as adjacent circles. Some have concluded that he thought the Arctic and Antarctic zones were adjacent to each other.[85] He did not admit the possibility of antipodes, which he took to mean people dwelling on the opposite side of the Earth, considering them legendary[86] and noting that there was no evidence for their existence.[87] Isidore's T and O map, which was seen as representing a small part of a spherical Earth, continued to be used by authors through the Middle Ages, e.g. the 9th-century bishop Rabanus Maurus who compared the habitable part of the northern hemisphere (Aristotle's northern temperate clime) with a wheel. At the same time, Isidore's works also gave the views of sphericity, for example, in chapter 28 of De Natura Rerum, Isidore claims that the sun orbits the earth and illuminates the other side when it is night on this side. See French translation of De Natura Rerum.[88] In his other work Etymologies, there are also affirmations that the sphere of the sky has earth in its center and the sky being equally distant on all sides.[89][90] Other researchers have argued these points as well.[78][91][92] "The work remained unsurpassed until the thirteenth century and was regarded as the summit of all knowledge. It became an essential part of European medieval culture. Soon after the invention of typography it appeared many times in print."[93] However, "The Scholastics - later medieval philosophers, theologians, and scientists - were helped by the Arabic translators and commentaries, but they hardly needed to struggle against a flat-earth legacy from the early middle ages (500-1050). Early medieval writers often had fuzzy and imprecise impressions of both Ptolemy and Aristotle and relied more on Pliny, but they felt (with one exception), little urge to assume flatness."[78]
Isidore's portrayal of the five zones of the earth
  • The monk Bede (c. 672–735) wrote in his influential treatise on computus, The Reckoning of Time, that the Earth was round ('not merely circular like a shield [or] spread out like a wheel, but resembl[ing] more a ball'), explaining the unequal length of daylight from "the roundness of the Earth, for not without reason is it called 'the orb of the world' on the pages of Holy Scripture and of ordinary literature. It is, in fact, set like a sphere in the middle of the whole universe." (De temporum ratione, 32). The large number of surviving manuscripts ofThe Reckoning of Time, copied to meet the Carolingian requirement that all priests should study the computus, indicates that many, if not most, priests were exposed to the idea of the sphericity of the Earth.[94] Ælfric of Eynsham paraphrased Bede into Old English, saying "Now the Earth's roundness and the Sun's orbit constitute the obstacle to the day's being equally long in every land."[95]
  • St Vergilius of Salzburg (c. 700–784), in the middle of the 8th century, discussed or taught some geographical or cosmographical ideas that St Boniface found sufficiently objectionable that he complained about them to Pope Zachary. The only surviving record of the incident is contained in Zachary's reply, dated 748, where he wrote:

As for the perverse and sinful doctrine which he (Virgil) against God and his own soul has uttered—if it shall be clearly established that he professes belief in another world and other men existing beneath the earth, or in (another) sun and moon there, thou art to hold a council, deprive him of his sacerdotal rank, and expel him from the Church.[96]

Some authorities have suggested that the sphericity of the Earth was among the aspects of Vergilius's teachings that Boniface and Zachary considered objectionable.[97][98] Others have considered this unlikely, and take the wording of Zachary's response to indicate at most an objection to belief in the existence of humans living in the antipodes.[99][100][101][102][103] In any case, there is no record of any further action having been taken against Vergilius. He was later appointed bishop of Salzburg, and was canonised in the 13th century.[104]
12th-century depiction of a spherical Earth with the four seasons (book Liber Divinorum Operum by Hildegard of Bingen)

A possible non-literary but graphic indication that people in the Middle Ages believed that the Earth (or perhaps the world) was a sphere is the use of the orb (globus cruciger) in the regalia of many kingdoms and of the Holy Roman Empire. It is attested from the time of the Christian late-Roman emperor Theodosius II (423) throughout the Middle Ages; the Reichsapfel was used in 1191 at the coronation of emperor Henry VI. However the word 'orbis' means 'circle' and there is no record of a globe as a representation of the Earth since ancient times in the west till that of Martin Behaim in 1492. Additionally it could well be a representation of the entire 'world' or cosmos.

A recent study of medieval concepts of the sphericity of the Earth noted that "since the eighth century, no cosmographer worthy of note has called into question the sphericity of the Earth."[105] However, the work of these intellectuals may not have had significant influence on public opinion, and it is difficult to tell what the wider population may have thought of the shape of the Earth, if they considered the question at all.

High and Late Middle Ages[edit]
Picture from a 1550 edition of On the Sphere of the World, the most influential astronomy textbook of 13th-century Europe

By the 11th century, Europe had learned of Islamic astronomy. The Renaissance of the 12th century from about 1070 started an intellectual revitalization of Europe with strong philosophical and scientific roots, and increased interest in natural philosophy.

Illustration of the spherical Earth in a 14th-century copy ofL'Image du monde (c. 1246)

Hermannus Contractus (1013–1054) was among the earliest Christian scholars to estimate the circumference of Earth with Eratosthenes' method.Thomas Aquinas (1225–1274), the most important and widely taught theologian of the Middle Ages, believed in a spherical Earth; and he even took for granted his readers also knew the Earth is round.[nb 1] Lectures in the medieval universities commonly advanced evidence in favor of the idea that the Earth was a sphere.[106] Also, "On the Sphere of the World", the most influential astronomy textbook of the 13th century and required reading by students in all Western European universities, described the world as a sphere. Thomas Aquinas, in his Summa Theologica, wrote, "The physicist proves the earth to be round by one means, the astronomer by another: for the latter proves this by means of mathematics, e.g. by the shapes of eclipses, or something of the sort; while the former proves it by means of physics, e.g. by the movement of heavy bodies towards the center, and so forth."[107]

The shape of the Earth was not only discussed in scholarly works written in Latin; it was also treated in works written in vernacular languages or dialects and intended for wider audiences. The Norwegian book Konungs Skuggsjá, from around 1250, states clearly that the Earth is round—and that there is night on the opposite side of the Earth when there is daytime in Norway. The author also discusses the existence of antipodes—and he notes that (if they exist) they see the Sun in the north of the middle of the day, and that they experience seasons opposite those of people in the Northern Hemisphere.

However Tattersall shows that in many vernacular works in 12th- and 13th-century French texts the Earth was considered "round like a table" rather than "round like an apple". "In virtually all the examples quoted...from epics and from non-'historical' romances (that is, works of a less learned character) the actual form of words used suggests strongly a circle rather than a sphere, though notes that even in these works the language is ambiguous.[108]

Portuguese exploration of Africa and ultimately Ferdinand Magellan led the Spanish circumnavigation of the Earth (1519–21) which provided practical observations of the global shape of the Earth.

Islamic world[edit]

The Abbasid Caliphate saw a great flowering of astronomy and mathematics in the 9th century CE, in which Muslim scholars translated Ptolemy's work, which became the Almagest, and extended and updated his work based on spherical ideas. Since then, these have generally been respected.

The Quran mentions that the world was "laid out". To this a classic Sunni commentary, the Tafsir al-Kabir (al-Razi) written in the late 12th century says "If it is said: Do the words “And the earth We spread out” indicate that it is flat? We would respond: Yes, because the earth, even though it is round, is an enormous sphere, and each little part of this enormous sphere, when it is looked at, appears to be flat. As that is the case, this will dispel what they mentioned of confusion. The evidence for that is the verse in which Allah says (interpretation of the meaning): “And the mountains as pegs” [an-Naba’ 78:7]. He called them awtaad (pegs) even though these mountains may have large flat surfaces. And the same is true in this case."[109]

Ibn Hazm states in his in fatwas Al-Fasl fi’l-Milal wa’l-Ahwa’ wa’l-Nihal that there is sound evidence in the Quran and hadiths that the earth is round, but the common folk say otherwise. He further states: "Our response – is that none of the leading Muslim scholars who deserve to be called imams or leaders in knowledge (may Allah be pleased with them) denied that the earth is round, and there is no narration from them to deny that. Rather the evidence in the Quran and Sunnah stated that it is round."[110]

A later classic Sunni commentary, the Tafsir al-Jalalayn written in the early 16th century says "As for His words sutihat, ‘laid out flat’, this on a literal reading suggests that the earth is flat, which is the opinion of most of the scholars of the [revealed] Law, and not a sphere as astronomers (ahl al-hay’a) have it, even if this [latter] does not contradict any of the pillars of the Law."[111][dubiousdiscuss] Other translations render "made flat" as "spread out".[112]

Ming China[edit]

As late as 1595, an early Jesuit missionary to China, Matteo Ricci, recorded that the Chinese say: "The earth is flat and square, and the sky is a round canopy; they did not succeed in conceiving the possibility of the antipodes."[53][113] The universal belief in a flat Earth is confirmed by a contemporary Chinese encyclopedia from 1609 illustrating a flat Earth extending over the horizontal diametral plane of a spherical heaven.[53]

In the 17th century, the idea of a spherical Earth spread in China due to the influence of the Jesuits, who held high positions as astronomers at the imperial court.[114]

Myth of the flat Earth[edit]

Beginning in the 19th century, a historical myth arose which held that the predominant cosmological doctrine during the Middle Ages was that the Earth was flat. An early proponent of this myth was the American writerWashington Irving, who maintained that Christopher Columbus had to overcome the opposition of churchmen to gain sponsorship for his voyage of exploration. Later significant advocates of this view were John William Draperand Andrew Dickson White, who used it as a major element in their advocacy of the thesis[115] that there was a long lasting and essential conflict between science and religion.[116] Subsequent historical research has demonstrated two flaws in this approach. First, studies of medieval science have shown that the preponderance of scholars in the Middle Ages, including those read by Christopher Columbus, maintained that the Earth was spherical.[117] Second, studies of the relations between science and religion over the course of time have demonstrated that the model of an essential conflict is a vast oversimplication, which ignores the positive elements of the relations between them.[118][119]

Modern Flat-Earthers[edit]
Flat Earth map drawn by Orlando Ferguson in 1893. The map contains several references to biblical passages as well as various jabs at the "Globe Theory".

In the modern era, belief in a flat Earth has been expressed by isolated individuals and groups, but is widely considered to be pseudoscience.

English writer Samuel Rowbotham (1816–1885), writing under the pseudonym "Parallax," produced a pamphlet called Zetetic Astronomy in 1849 arguing for a flat Earth and published results of many experiments that tested the curvatures of water over a long drainage ditch, followed by another called The inconsistency of Modern Astronomy and its Opposition to the Scripture. One of his supporters, John Hampden, lost a bet to Alfred Russel Wallace in the famous Bedford Level Experiment, which attempted to prove it. In 1877 Hampden produced a book called "A New Manual of Biblical Cosmography".[120] Rowbotham also produced studies that purported to show that the effects of ships disappearing below the horizon could be explained by the laws of perspective in relation to the human eye.[121] In 1883 he founded Zetetic Societies in England and New York, to which he shipped a thousand copies of Zetetic Astronomy.

William Carpenter, a printer originally from Greenwich, England, was a supporter of Rowbotham and published Theoretical Astronomy Examined and Exposed – Proving the Earth not a Globe in eight parts from 1864 under the name Common Sense.[122] He later emigrated to Baltimore where he published A hundred proofs the Earth is not a Globe in 1885.[123] He said:

  • "There are rivers that flow for hundreds of miles towards the level of the sea without falling more than a few feet — notably, the Nile, which, in a thousand miles, falls but a foot. A level expanse of this extent is quite incompatible with the idea of the Earth's convexity. It is, therefore, a reasonable proof that Earth is not a globe."
  • "If the Earth were a globe, a small model globe would be the very best — because the truest — thing for the navigator to take to sea with him. But such a thing as that is not known: with such a toy as a guide, the mariner would wreck his ship, of a certainty!, This is a proof that Earth is not a globe."

John Jasper, the black ex-slave preacher said to have preached to more people than any Southern clergyman of his generation, echoed his friend Carpenter's sentiments in his most famous sermon "Der Sun do move and the Earth Am Square", preached over 250 times always by invitation.[124]

In Brockport, New York, in 1887, M.C. Flanders argued the case of a flat Earth for three nights against two scientific gentlemen defending sphericity. Five townsmen chosen as judges voted unanimously for a flat Earth at the end. The case was reported in the Brockport Democrat.[125]

"Professor" Joseph W. Holden of Maine, a former justice of the peace, gave numerous lectures in New England and lectured on flat Earth theory at the Columbian Exposition in Chicago. His fame stretched to North Carolinawhere the Statesville Semi-weekly Landmark recorded at his death in 1900: 'We hold to the doctrine that the earth is flat ourselves and we regret exceedingly to learn that one of our members is dead'.[126]

After Rowbotham's death, Lady Elizabeth Blount created the Universal Zetetic Society in 1893 in England and created a journal called Earth not a Globe Review, which sold for twopence, as well as one called Earth, which only lasted from 1901 to 1904. She held that the Bible was the unquestionable authority on the natural world and argued that one could not be a Christian and believe the Earth is a globe. Well-known members included E. W. Bullinger of the Trinitarian Bible Society, Edward Haughton, senior moderator in natural science in Trinity College, Dublin and an archbishop. She repeated Rowbotham's experiments, generating some interesting counter-experiments, but interest declined after the First World War.[126] The movement gave rise to several books that argued for a flat, stationary earth, including Terra Firma by David Wardlaw Scott.[127]

In 1898, during his solo circumnavigation of the world, Joshua Slocum encountered a group of flat-Earthers in Durban. Three Boers, one of them a clergyman, presented Slocum with a pamphlet in which they set out to prove that the world was flat. Paul Kruger, President of the Transvaal Republic, advanced the same view: "You don't mean round the world, it is impossible! You mean in the world. Impossible!"[128]

Wilbur Glenn Voliva, who in 1906 took over the Christian Catholic Church, a Pentecostal sect that established a utopian community at Zion, Illinois, preached flat Earth doctrine from 1915 onwards and used a photograph of a twelve-mile stretch of the shoreline at Lake Winnebago, Wisconsin taken three feet above the waterline to prove his point. When the airship Italia disappeared on an expedition to the North Pole in 1928 he warned the world's press that it had sailed over the edge of the world. He offered a $5,000 award for proving the Earth is not flat, under his own conditions.[129] Teaching a globular Earth was banned in the Zion schools and the message was transmitted on his WCBD radio station.[126]

Mohammed Yusuf, founder of the Nigerian militant Islamist group Boko Haram, stated his belief in a flat Earth.[130]

In January 2016, rapper B.o.B tweeted that "A lot of people are turned off by the phrase 'flat earth' ... but there's no way u can see all the evidence and not know... grow up",[131] and accused NASA of hiding the truth. Astrophysicist Neil deGrasse Tyson replied to B.o.B.'s arguments, commenting that "Being five centuries regressed in your reasoning doesn't mean we all can't still like your music."[132]

Flat Earth Society[edit]
Azimuthal equidistant projections of the sphere like this one have also been co-opted as images of the flat Earth model depicting Antarctica as an ice wall[133][134] surrounding a disk-shaped Earth.

In 1956, Samuel Shenton set up the International Flat Earth Research Society (IFERS), better known as the Flat Earth Society from Dover, UK, as a direct descendant of the Universal Zetetic Society. This was just before the Soviet Union launched the first artificial satellite, Sputnik; he responded, "Would sailing round the Isle of Wight prove that it were spherical? It is just the same for those satellites."

His primary aim was to reach children before they were convinced about a spherical Earth. Despite plenty of publicity, the space race eroded Shenton's support in Britain until 1967 when he started to become famous due to the Apollo program. His postbag was full but his health suffered as his operation remained essentially a one-man show until he died in 1971.[126]

In 1972 Shenton's role was taken over by Charles K. Johnson, a correspondent from California, USA. He incorporated the IFERS and steadily built up the membership to about 3,000. He spent years examining the studies of flat and round Earth theories and proposed evidence of a conspiracy against flat-Earth: "The idea of a spinning globe is only a conspiracy of error that Moses, Columbus, and FDR all fought..." His article was published in the magazine Science Digest, 1980. It goes on to state, "If it is a sphere, the surface of a large body of water must be curved. The Johnsons have checked the surfaces of Lake Tahoe and the Salton Sea without detecting any curvature."[135]

The Society declined in the 1990s following a fire at its headquarters in California and the death of Johnson in 2001.[136] It was revived as a website in 2004 by Daniel Shenton (no relation to Samuel Shenton). He believes that no one has provided proof that the world is not flat.[137]

Cultural references[edit]

The term flat-Earther is often used in a derogatory sense to mean anyone who holds ridiculously antiquated views. The first use of the term flat-earther recorded by the Oxford English Dictionary is in 1934 in Punch: "Without being a bigoted flat-earther, he [sc. Mercator] perceived the nuisance..of fiddling about with globes..in order to discover the South Seas."[138] The term flat-earth-man was recorded in 1908: "Fewer votes than one would have thought possible for any human candidate, were he even a flat-earth-man."[139]

Scientific satire[edit]

In a satirical piece published 1996, Albert A. Bartlett uses arithmetic to show that sustainable growth on Earth is impossible in a spherical Earth since its resources are necessarily finite. He explains that only a model of a flat Earth, stretching infinitely in the two horizontal dimensions and also in the vertical downward direction, would be able to accommodate the needs of a permanently growing population.

Referring to Julian Simon's book The Ultimate Resource, Bartlett suggests "So, let us think of the 'We’re going to grow the limits!' people as the 'New Flat Earth Society.'"[140] The satiric nature of the piece is also made clear by a comparison to Bartlett's other publications, which mainly advocate the necessity of curbing population growth.[141]

Nibiru cataclysm

The Nibiru cataclysm is a supposed disastrous encounter between the Earth and a large planetary object (either a collision or a near-miss) which certain groups believe will take place in the early 21st century. Believers in this doomsday event usually refer to this object as Planet X orNibiru. The idea that a planet-sized object will collide with or closely pass by Earth in the near future is not supported by any scientific evidence and has been rejected as pseudoscience and an internet hoax by astronomers and planetary scientists.[2][3]

The idea was first put forward in 1995 by Nancy Lieder,[4][5] founder of the website ZetaTalk. Lieder describes herself as a contactee with the ability to receive messages from extraterrestrials from the Zeta Reticuli star system through an implant in her brain. She states that she was chosen to warn mankind that the object would sweep through the inner Solar System in May 2003 (though that date was later postponed) causing Earth to undergo a physical pole shift that would destroy most of humanity.[6] The prediction has subsequently spread beyond Lieder's website and has been embraced by numerous Internet doomsday groups, most of which linked the event to the 2012 phenomenon. The name "Nibiru" is derived from the works of the ancient astronaut writer Zecharia Sitchin and his interpretations of Babylonian and Sumerian mythology; he denied any connection between his

 work and various claims of a coming apocalypse.

The idea of the Nibiru encounter originated with Nancy Lieder, a Wisconsin woman who claims that as a girl she was contacted by gray extraterrestrialscalled Zetas, who implanted a communications device in her brain. In 1995, she founded the website ZetaTalk to disseminate her ideas.[7] Lieder first came to public attention on Internet newsgroups during the build-up to Comet Hale–Bopp's 1997 perihelion. She stated, claiming to speak as the Zetas,[8] that "The Hale-Bopp comet does not exist. It is a fraud, perpetrated by those who would have the teeming masses quiescent until it is too late. Hale-Bopp is nothing more than a distant star, and will draw no closer."[9] She claimed that the Hale-Bopp story was manufactured to distract people from the imminent arrival of a large planetary object, "Planet X", which would soon pass by Earth and destroy civilization.[9] After Hale-Bopp's perihelion revealed it as one of the brightest and longest-observed comets of the last century,[10] Lieder removed the first two sentences of her initial statement from her site, though they can still be found in Google's archives.[9] Her claims eventually made the New York Times.[11]

Lieder described Planet X as roughly four times the size of the Earth, and said that its closest approach would occur on May 27, 2003, resulting in the Earth's rotation ceasing for exactly 5.9 terrestrial days. This would be followed by the Earth's pole destabilising in a pole shift (a physical pole shift, with the Earth's pole physically moving, rather than a geomagnetic reversal) caused by magnetic attraction between the Earth's core and the magnetism of the passing planet. This in turn would disrupt the Earth's magnetic core and lead to subsequent displacement of the Earth's crust.[12]

After Lieder, the first person to propagate her Planet X idea was Mark Hazlewood, a former member of the ZetaTalk community, who in 2001 published a book titled Blindsided: Planet X Passes in 2003. Lieder would later accuse him of being a confidence trickster.[13] A Japanese cult called the Pana Wave Laboratory, which blocked off roads and rivers with white cloths to protect itself from electromagnetic attacks, also warned that the world would end in May 2003 after the approach of a tenth planet.[14]

Roughly a week before the supposed arrival of Planet X in May 2003, Lieder appeared on KROQ-FM radio in Los Angeles, and advised listeners to euthanize their pets in anticipation of the event as she had done.[15] This led the Fortean Times to conclude that she had put down her dog(s) to save them from further suffering during the Pole Shift.[16] Later, in a 2004 interview she said that she had euthanized her dog because it was acting aggressively.[17] After the 2003 date passed without incident, Lieder said that it was merely a "white lie ... to fool the establishment."[18] She refused to disclose the true date, saying that to do so would give those in power enough time to declare martial law and trap people in cities during the shift, leading to their deaths.[19] Though Lieder herself has not specified a new date for the object's return, many groups have taken up her idea and cited their own dates. One frequently cited date was December 21, 2012. This date had many apocalyptic associations, as it was the end of a cycle (baktun) in the long count in the Mayan calendar. Several writers published books connecting the encounter with 2012.[20] Despite that date having passed, many websites still contend that Nibiru/Planet X is en route to Earth.[21]

In 2012, Lieder claimed that U.S. President Barack Obama futilely attempted to announce the presence of Nibiru near the sun.[22] After 2012, she claimed that several world leaders had intended to announce the presence of Nibiru near the sun on October 20, 2014. Two weeks after the supposed date of announcement, she claimed that it did not occur because of consternation amongst the establishment.[23]

Many believers in the imminent approach of Planet X/Nibiru accuse NASA of deliberately covering up visual evidence of its existence.[36] One such accusation involves the IRAS infrared space observatory, launched in 1983. The satellite briefly made headlines due to an "unknown object" that was at first described as "possibly as large as the giant planet Jupiter and possibly so close to Earth that it would be part of this Solar System".[37] This newspaper article has been cited by proponents of the Nibiru cataclysm, beginning with Lieder herself, as evidence for the existence of Nibiru.[38] However, further analysis revealed that of several initially unidentified objects, nine were distant galaxies and the tenth was "galactic cirrus"; none were found to be Solar System bodies.[39]

NASA images showing the expansion of a light echo around V838 Mon, between 2002 and 2004

Another accusation frequently made by websites predicting the collision is that the U.S. government built the South Pole Telescope (SPT) to track Nibiru's trajectory, and that the object has been imaged optically.[40] However, the SPT (which is not funded by NASA) is a radio telescope, and cannot take optical images. Its South Pole location was chosen due to the low-humidity environment, and there is no way an approaching object could be seenonly from the South Pole.[41] The "picture" of Nibiru posted on YouTube was revealed, in fact, to be a Hubble image of the expanding light echo around the star V838 Mon.[40]

Another conspiracy claim regards a patch of missing data in Google Sky near the constellation of Orion, which has often been cited as evidence that Nibiru has been redacted. However, the same region of sky can still be viewed by thousands of amateur astronomers. A scientist at Google said that the missing data is due to a glitch in the stitching software used to piece the images together.[42]

Another piece of claimed evidence drawn from Google Sky is the carbon star CW Leonis, which is the brightest object in the 10 μm infrared sky and is frequently claimed to be Nibiru.[43]




Hollow Earth Hypothesis



















Hollow Earth Hypothesis

As science and science fiction merge, we unravel the ancient mysteries of the human experience. If indeed entities exist beneath the surface of the planet, they would not live in molten rock but in space ships. And as the tectonic plates are breaking - it is either by their doing, a knowing that the consciousness hologram that creates this reality, is ending so they no longer have to monitor from below, or they emerge as the plates naturally break apart.

Hollow Earth Theories always propose a central sun, aliens, and mythical subterranean cities and civilizations that some believe could link science and pseudoscience if physically discovered. Glaciers at both the Arctic and Antarctic regions are melting down at an accelerated rate, which will reveal the truth behind this mystery and its metaphoric connections to other creation myths in the story of humanity's journey on plant Earth.

According to the Hollow Earth Hypothesis, planet Earth is either wholly hollow or otherwise contains a substantial interior space. The hypothesis has long been contradicted by overwhelming observational evidence, as well as by the modern understanding of planet formation; the scientific community has dismissed the notion since at least the late 18th century.

The concept of a hollow Earth still recurs in folklore and as the premise for a sub-genre of adventure fiction. It also features in some present-day pseudoscientific and conspiracy theories.

Underground civilizations link with the 'Hollow Earth Theory'. There are supposedly races that exist in subterranean cities beneath planet Earth. Very often, these dwellers of the world beneath are more technologically advanced than we on the surface. Some believe that UFOs are not from other planets, but are manufactured by strange beings in the interior of the Earth.


Conventional Hollow Earth Theories

Early History

In ancient times, the idea of subterranean realms seemed arguable, and became intertwined with the concept of "places" such as the Greek Hades, the Nordic svartalfheim, the Christian Hell, and the Jewish Sheol (with details describing inner Earth in Kabalistic literature, such as the Zohar and Hesed L'Avraham).




Edmond Halley in 1692 put forth the idea of Earth consisting of a hollow shell about 800 km (500 miles) thick, two inner concentric shells and an innermost core, about the diameters of the planets Venus, Mars, and Mercury. Atmospheres separate these shells, and each shell has its own magnetic poles. The spheres rotate at different speeds. Halley proposed this scheme in order to explain anomalous compass readings. He envisaged the atmosphere inside as luminous (and possibly inhabited) and speculated that escaping gas caused the Aurora Borealis.


De Camp and Ley have claimed (in their Lands Beyond) that Leonhard Euler also proposed a hollow-Earth idea, getting rid of multiple shells and postulating an interior sun 1000 km (600 miles) across to provide light to advanced inner-Earth civilization (but they provide no references). However in his Letters to a German princess Euler describes a thought experiment involving a patently solid Earth.

De Camp and Ley also claim that Sir John Leslie expanded on Euler's idea, suggesting two central suns named Pluto and Proserpine (this was unrelated to the dwarf planet Pluto, which was discovered and named some time later). Leslie did propose a hollow Earth in his 1829 Elements of Natural Philosophy (pp. 449Ð453), but does not mention interior suns.

19th century

In 1818, John Cleves Symmes, Jr. suggested that the Earth consisted of a hollow shell about 1300 km (800 miles) thick, with openings about 2300 km (1400 miles) across at both poles with 4 inner shells each open at the poles. Symmes became the most famous of the early Hollow Earth proponents. He proposed making an expedition to the North Pole hole, thanks to efforts of one of his followers, James McBride, but the new President of the United States, Andrew Jackson, halted the attempt.

Jeremiah Reynolds also delivered lectures on the "Hollow Earth" and argued for an expedition. Reynolds went on an expedition to Antarctica himself but missed joining the Great U.S. Exploring Expedition of 1838-1842, even though that venture was a result of his agitation.

Though Symmes himself never wrote a book about his ideas, several authors published works discussing his ideas. McBride wrote Symmes' Theory of Concentric Spheres in 1826. It appears that Reynolds has an article that appeared as a separate booklet in 1827: Remarks of Symmes' Theory Which Appeared in the American Quarterly Review.

In 1868, a professor W.F. Lyons published The Hollow Globe which put forth a Symmes-like Hollow Earth hypothesis, but didn't mention Symmes. Symmes's son Americus then published The Symmes' Theory of Concentric Spheres to set the record straight.


Recent Theories:

The Thule Society, which was well known by Adolf Hitler,reported much about Tibetan myths of openings into the Earth. There is even a theory that Hitler ordered a research journey for such an opening in Antarctica, based on a speech of Admiral Donitz in front of a German submarine in 1944, when he claimed "The German submarine fleet is proud of having built an invisible fortification for the Fuhrer, anywhere in the world." During the Nuremberg Trials, Donitz spoke of "an invisible fortification, in midst of the eternal ice."

    According to the Hollow Earth Research Society in Ontario, Canada, they are still there. After the war, the organization claims, the Allies discovered that more than 2,000 scientists from Germany and Italy had vanished, along with almost a million people, to the land beyond the South Pole. This story gets more complicated with Nazi-designed UFOs, Nazi collaboration with the people who live in the center of the Earth, and the possible explanation for "Aryan-looking" UFO pilots.

In 2005, Steven Currey Expeditions planned an expedition to the North Pole region to explore for a possible opening into the inner Earth. Brooks A. Agnew took over as leader on Currey's death in 2006, with the plan of taking 100 scientists and film makers to the supposed Arctic "opening" in 2009.

An early twentieth-century proponent of hollow Earth, William Reed, wrote Phantom of the Poles in 1906. He supported the idea of a hollow Earth, but without interior shells or inner sun.

Marshall Gardner wrote A Journey to the Earth's Interior in 1913 and an expanded edition in 1920. He placed an interior sun in the hollow Earth. He even built a working model of the hollow Earth and patented it. Gardner made no mention of Reed, but did take Symmes to task for his ideas. In the same time Vladimir Obruchev wrote a fiction novel Plutonia, where the hollow Earth's interior possessed one inner (central) sun and was inhabited by prehistoric species. The interior was connected with the surface by a hole in the Arctic.

Other writers have proposed that ascended masters of esoteric wisdom inhabit subterranean caverns or a hollow Earth. Antarctica, the North Pole, Tibet, Peru, and Mount Shasta in California, USA, have all had their advocates as the locations of entrances to a subterranean realm referred to as Agartha, with some even advancing the hypothesis that UFOs have their homeland in these places.




In 1964, Raymond W. Bernard, an esotericist and leader of the Rosicrucians published The Hollow Earth - The Greatest Geographical Discovery in History Made by Admiral Richard E. Byrd in the Mysterious Land Beyond the Poles - The True Origin of the Flying Saucers. Bernard tells stories about people who have entered the inner earth and what has happened to them. It mentions a photograph published in 1960 in the Globe and Mail in Toronto, Canada which shows a beautiful valley with lush hills. An aviator claimed that he had taken the picture while flying into the North Pole.

In his Letters from Nowhere, Bernard claims to have been in contact with great mystics in secret ashrams and with Grand Lamas in Tibet. He was, in short, another Gurdjieff. Dr. Bernard "died of pneumonia on September 10, 1965, while searching the tunnel openings to the interior of the Earth, in South America."

Bernard seems to have accepted every legend ever associated with the hollow Earth idea, including the notions that the Eskimos originated within the Earth and an advanced civilization dwells within even now, revving up their UFOs for occasional forays into thin air. Bernard even accepts without question Shaver's claim that he learned the secret of relativity before Einstein from the Hollow Earth people.


Admiral Richard E. Byrd of the United States Navy flew to the North Pole in 1926 and over the South Pole in 1929. he referred to Antarctica as "The Land of Everlasting Mystery". In reference to the North Pole he wrote: "I'd like to see that land beyond the North Pole, it is the Center of the Great Unknown."

    His airplane was greeted by flying machines of a type he had never seen before. They escorted him to a safe landing area where he was graciously greeted by emissaries from Agartha. After resting, he and his crew, were taken to meet the king and queen of Agartha. They told him that he had been allowed to enter Agartha because of his high moral and ethical character. They went on to say that they worried about the safety of planet due to he bombs and other testing done above the surface by governments. After the visit Byrd and his crew were guided back to the surface of the planet.

    Byrd stated that the North and South Poles are only two of many openings into the center of the Earth. He also wrote about seeing a sun below the Earth.

Did Admiral Byrd Fly Over the North Pole or Not?   Live Science - April 16, 2013

                                                                                                   THE ANUNNAKI


This information poses an interesting Hypothesis that the "anunnaki" are the GODS as described by the Sumerians, and they had "Android Beings" helping them.

Today's modern UFO's and Alien Contacts being reported have a strong similarity to the Ancient descriptions of the "anunnaki" Android Beings. When we look at the descriptions of our modern "grey alien", we can clearly see that they do not look like us, or the anunnaki. Rather, they look like the ancient humanoid depictions of Figurines. The majority of Abduction cases usually have a similar story to them in that the Aliens abducting them will perform medical examination and sometimes experiments having to do with human reproduction.

The Sumerian Culture, which dates back to 6,000 BC, is the oldest known culture on Earth. Even today we still use the same Mathematical system, Calendar, and Time as they created it so long ago. Since we have the evidence left over today, we can see similarities between what they had then, and what we have now.

The Sumerians describe Planet X as being very far from Earth at times, (roughly 30,000,000,000) miles away at it's farthest point from us in orbit. This would make it rather difficult to travel back and forth between the two planets if separated by so much of a distance.

The Sumerians had amazing knowledge of the solar system, and of their GODS coming down to Earth. They also tell of another being that they described in our terms as "Android Beings". The Sumerians tell us that the anunnaki had "helpers" that often performed such tasks as flying their craft , or helping with miscellaneous needs. The Sumerians directly explain that these "Helpers" were not alive, but acted as so...

Not only did they make figurines of the visitors, they also wrote down in Cuneiform text (on stone) what took place during the encounters with these "Android Beings".There are many stories where Emissaries of GOD helped out in one way or another.

Is it possible that the Greys were created by the anunnaki as "Watchers" to oversee their experiments here on earth? If the anunnaki are the GODS spoken about in all ancient texts and even the Modern Bible, then it is possible that they could have also created an "Android Race" aside from creating humans.

Maintaining the idea that the anunnaki really do exist on Nibiru (planet X), and they created man using Genetic Engineering thousands of years ago, then it makes sense that they would have quite an interest in us. We might be one of their grandest experiments.

What if they also experimented with other species OFF the planet Earth. If the anunnaki exist, then there are also MANY other races on other planets as well. This would only be logical. Maybe the anunnaki also used a mix between the known "ZETAS" or "GREYS" and created an Android race to serve the anunnaki.

When we analyze the descriptions of Aliens from people who claim to have been abducted, most of the aliens are described as being small grey beings that have large eyes, a bulbous head, and act almost "Android" like.

Through the great works of scholars such as Zecharia Sitchin and Lloyd Pye, we have learned that the anunnaki are said to have created Humans from the primitive man already here, and combined their genes with the primitive Neanderthal to create us.

(In their image and after their likeness - just like the bible)




The world before the Genesis 


"For He [Jesus] is our Shalom [peace] who has made both one, and has broken down the middle wall of partition between us." Eph.2:14

"My son, attend to my words; incline your ears unto my sayings. Let them not depart from your eyes; keep them in the midst of your heart. For they are life unto those who find them, and health to all their flesh. Keep your heart with all diligence; for out of it are the issues of life. Put away from you a forward mouth, and perverse lips put far from you." (Proverbs 4:20-24)

"It is He who sits upon the circle of the earth ..." (Isaiah 40:22).


Christopher Columbus may have read this and realized that the Earth had to be round - the Scriptures confirmed it.

The Genesis Gap

The Gap between Genesis 1:1 and Genesis 1:2 explains that there was a world before the creation of Adam and his wife. How old the planet Earth is we do not know, but we do know from Scriptures and science that the Earth is older than 6000 years - much older than Adam and his wife. Here is the explanation (explication):

The Hebrew word "Haya" means "it became ..." "And the earth became formless and void" - why? What caused the cataclysm?

Jeremiah 4:23
"I behold the Earth, and, lo it was without form, and void; and the heavens, they had no light."

Isaiah 45:18
"For thus saith the Lord who created the heavens; God Himself who formed the earth and made it; He has established it, he created it not in vain, He formed it to be inhabited."

Genesis 1:28
"And God said unto them: Be fruitful and multiply and replenish the earth, and subdue it; and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moves upon the earth."
So, the earth was once plenished. Adam and his wife were now to replenish it.

Eden is the Key to the Great Mystery

The Scriptures confirm that Lucifer had been in the Garden of Eden long before Adam and his wife were created and given dominium. How long we do not know, but the gap between Genesis 1:1 and 1:2 tells us something happened to cause the earth to be without form and void especially after God declared He did not create the Earth to be formless and void. Nothing but the Fall of Lucifer caused this. So, when God created Adam and his wife (they were both called Adam before the Fall see Genesis 5:2 Adam named her Eve after the Fall) Lucifer now renamed satan--the usurper--must have been seething with rage...... He has lost his place with God - he had been cast out. No wonder satan was just waiting to ensure the Fall of Adam and his wife. Note, too, it was the Sabbath and God was resting, but the man and his wife were walking in the garden. Satan must have figured that he could stretch this bit of disobedience - and he did - he went right for the kill! How do we know it was the Sabbath? Because verse 8 tells us that God was walking in the Garden in the cool of the day - it was evening - the sun was not out. Adam and Eve hid themselves when they heard God calling. The rest is history.

Here are other scriptures regarding the Genesis Gap.

Genesis 2:8
"And the Lord planted a garden towards the east in Eden; and there He put the man whom He had formed."

Ezekiel 28:13-18
"Thou has been in eden the garden of God; every precious stone was your covering the sardius, topaz, the diamond, the beryl, the onyx, the jasper, the sapphire the emerald and the carbuncle and gold; the workmanship of your tabrets and of your pipes was prepared in you in the day that you were created. You are the anointed cherub that covereth; and I have set you so, you were upon the holy mountain of God; you have walked up and down in the midst of the stones of fire. Your heart was lifted up because of your beauty, you have corrupted your wisdom by reason of your brightness: I will cast you to the ground, I will lay you before kings, that they may behold you. You have defiled your sanctuaries by the multitude of your iniquities, by the iniquity of your traffick; therefore I will bring forth a fire from the midst of you, it shall devour you and I will bring you to ashes upon the earth in the sight of all those who behold you." Here the scriptures confirm that Lucifer was in the garden of Eden before Adam and his wife were created.

Isaiah 14:12-17
"How thou art fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning; how art thou cut down to the ground, who did weaken the nations. For you have said in your heart, I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my throne above the stars of God; I will sit also upon the mount of the congregation in thesides of the North; I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will be like the most High."
Here the scriptures confirm Lucifer's fall because of pride. And in rebellion, satan makes his plan to spite God. Note that satan cannot accomplish this without man - because man has redemption and free will. Satan does not. Angels do not have redemption.

Psalm 48:2 describes where the sides of the North is:
"Beautiful for situation, the joy of the whole earth is mount Zion on the sides of the north, the city of the great King.

Luke 10:18
"And Jesus said to them: "I beheld satan as lightning fall from heaven."

        Lucifer's Fall caused th earth to be null and void. Genesis 1:1.

        Genesis 3 - Man's Fall caused the Garden of Eden to be nul and void.

        A personal Fall (backsliding) will make a person's relationship with God, null and void.

"Whatever limits us we call FATE" - Ralph Waldo Emerson.

"Whatever frees us from limitations we call Faith." - O.J. Graham

"GOD DOES NOT ROLL DICE" - Albert Einstein


Who was Lilith?

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about the Jewish mythological figure Lilith. For other uses, see Lilith (disambiguation).

Lilith (Hebrew: לִילִית‎ Lîlîṯ) is a Hebrew name for a figure in Jewish mythology, developed earliest in the Babylonian Talmud[citation needed], who is generally thought to be in part derived from a historically far earlier class of female demons (līlīṯu) in Mesopotamian religion, found in cuneiform texts of Sumer, Akkad, Assyria, and Babylonia.

Evidence in later Jewish materials is plentiful, but little information has been found relating to the original Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian and Babylonian view of these demons. The relevance of two sources previously used to connect the Jewish lilith to an Akkadian lilitu—the Gilgamesh appendix and the Arslan Tash amulets—are now both disputed by recent scholarship.[1] The two problematic sources are discussed below.[2]

The Hebrew term lilith or lilit (translated as "night creatures", "night monster", "night hag", or "screech owl") first occurs in Isaiah 34:14, either singular or plural according to variations in the earliest manuscripts, though in a list of animals. In the Dead Sea Scrolls Songs of the Sage the term first occurs in a list of monsters. In Jewish magical inscriptions on bowls and amulets from the 6th century BC onwards, Lilith is identified as a female demon and the first visual depictions appear.

In Jewish folklore, from Alphabet of Ben Sira onwards, Lilith becomes Adam's first wife, who was created at the same time (Rosh Hashanah) and from the same earth as Adam. This contrasts with Eve, who was created from one of Adam's ribs. The legend was greatly developed during the Middle Ages, in the tradition of Aggadic midrashim, the Zohar, and Jewish mysticism. For example, in the 13th century writings of Rabbi Isaac ben Jacob ha-Cohen, Lilith left Adam after she refused to become subservient to him and then would not return to the Garden of Edenafter she coupled with the archangel Samael.[4] The resulting Lilith legend is still commonly used as source material in modern Western culture, literature, occultism, fantasy, and horror.


The semitic root L-Y-L served as derivative for the Hebrew layil and Arabic layl, meaning "night". The Talmudic and Yiddish use of Lilith cognates with the Hebrew.

In the Akkadian language of Assyria and Babylonia the terms lili and līlītu mean spirits. Some uses of līlītu are listed in The Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago (CAD, 1956, L.190), in Wolfram von Soden's Akkadisches Handwörterbuch (AHw, p. 553), and Reallexikon der Assyriologie (RLA, p. 47).[5]

The Sumerian she-demons lili have no etymologic relation to Akkadian lilu, "evening."[6]

Archibald Sayce (1882)[7] considered that Hebrew lilit (or lilith) Hebrew: לילית‎; and the earlier Akkadian: līlītu are from proto-Semitic. Charles Fossey (1902)[8] has this literally translating to "female night being/demon," although cuneiform inscriptions from Mesopotamia exist where Līlīt and Līlītu refers to disease-bearing wind spirits.[citation needed] Another possibility is association not with "night," but with "wind," thus identifying the Akkadian Lil-itu as a loan from the Sumerian lil, "air" — specifically from Ninlil, "lady air," goddess of the south wind (and wife of Enlil) — anditud, "moon


The spirit in the tree in the Gilgamesh cycle[edit]

Samuel Noah Kramer (1932, published 1938)[9] translated ki-sikil-lil-la-ke as Lilith in "Tablet XII" of the Epic of Gilgamesh dated c.600 BC. "Tablet XII" is not part of the Epic of Gilgamesh, but is a later Assyrian Akkadian translation of the latter part of the Sumerian poem of Gilgamesh and the Netherworld.[10] The ki-sikil-lil-la-ke is associated with a serpent and a zu bird.[11] InGilgamesh and the Netherworld, a huluppu tree grows in Inanna's garden in Uruk, whose wood she plans to use to build a new throne. After ten years of growth, she comes to harvest it and finds a serpent living at its base, a Zu bird raising young in its crown, and that a ki-sikil-lil-la-ke made a house in its trunk. Gilgamesh is said to have smitten the snake, and then the zu bird flew away to the mountains with its young, while the ki-sikil-lil-la-ke fearfully destroys its house and runs for the forest.[12][13] Identification of ki-sikil-lil-la-ke as Lilith is stated in Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible (1999).[14] According to a new source from Late Antiquity, Lilith appears in a Mandaic magic story where she is considered to represent the branches of a tree with other demonic figures that form other parts of the tree, though this may also include multiple "Liliths".[15]

Suggested translations for the Tablet XII spirit in the tree include ki-sikil as "sacred place", lil as "spirit", and lil-la-ke as "water spirit".[16] but also simply "owl", given that the lil is building a home in the trunk of the tree.[17]

A connection between the Gilgamesh ki-sikil-lil-la-ke and the Jewish Lilith was rejected by Dietrich Opitz (1932)[18] and rejected on textual grounds by Sergio Ribichini (1978).[19]


The bird-foot woman in the Burney Relief[edit]

Main article: Burney Relief
Burney Relief, Babylon (1800-1750 BCE). Some scholars (e.g. Emil Kraeling) identified the figure in the relief with Lilith, based on a misreading of an outdated translation of the Epic of Gilgamesh.[20] Modern research has identified the figure as one of the main goddesses of the Mesopotamian pantheons, most probably Ishtar orEreshkigal.[21]

Kramer's translation of the Gilgamesh fragment was used by Henri Frankfort (1937)[22] and Emil Kraeling (1937)[23] to support identification of a woman with wings and bird-feet in the Burney Relief as related to Lilith, but this has been rejected by later sources, including the British Museum, which owns the piece.


The Arslan Tash amulets[edit]
Main article: Arslan Tash amulets

The Arslan Tash amulets are limestone plaques discovered in 1933 at Arslan Tash, the authenticity of which is disputed. William F. Albright, Theodor H. Gaster,[24] and others, accepted the amulets as a pre-Jewish source which shows that the name Lilith already existed in the 7th century BC butTorczyner (1947) identified the amulets as a later Jewish source.


The word lilu means spirit in the Akkadian Language, and the male lili and female lilitu are found in incantation texts from Nippur, Babylonia circa 600 BC in both singular and plural forms.[26] Among the spirits the vardat lilitu, or maiden spirit bears some comparison with later Talmudic legends of Lilith.[27][28][29][30] A lili is related to witchcraft in the Sumerian incantation Text 313.


In the Bible[edit]

The only occurrence is in the Book of Isaiah 34:14, describing the desolation of Edom, where the Hebrew word lilit (or lilith) appears in a list of eight unclean animals, some of which may have demonic associations. Since the word lilit (or lilith) is a hapax legomenon in the Hebrew Bible and the other seven terms in the list are better documented, the reading of scholars and translators is often guided by a decision about the complete list of eight creatures as a whole.[Quoting from Isaiah 34 (NAB):

(12) Her nobles shall be no more, nor shall kings be proclaimed there; all her princes are gone. (13) Her castles shall be overgrown with thorns, her fortresses with thistles and briers. She shall become an abode for jackals and a haunt for ostriches. (14) Wildcats shall meet with desert beasts, satyrs shall call to one another; There shall the Lilith repose, and find for herself a place to rest. (15) There the hoot owl shall nest and lay eggs, hatch them out and gather them in her shadow; There shall the kites assemble, none shall be missing its mate. (16) Look in the book of the LORD and read: No one of these shall be lacking, For the mouth of the LORD has ordered it, and His spirit shall gather them there. (17) It is He who casts the lot for them, and with His hands He marks off their shares of her; They shall possess her forever, and dwell there from generation to generation.Hebrew text[edit]

In the Masoretic Text:

Hebrew: וּפָגְשׁוּ צִיִּים אֶת-אִיִּים, וְשָׂעִיר עַל-רֵעֵהוּ יִקְרָא; אַךְ-שָׁם הִרְגִּיעָה לִּילִית, וּמָצְאָה לָהּ מָנוֹחHebrew (ISO 259): u-pagšu ṣiyyim et-ʾiyyim v-saʿir ʿal-rēʿēhu yiqra; ʾak-šam hirgiʿa lilit u-maṣʾa lah manoaḫ[34]34:14 "And shall-meet desert creatures with jackalsthe goat he-calls his- fellowlilit (lilith) she-rests and she-finds rest 34:15 there she-shall-nest the great-owl, and she-lays-(eggs), and she-hatches, and she-gathers under her-shadow:hawks[kites, gledes ] also they-gather, every one with its mate.

In the Dead Sea Scrolls, among the 19 fragments of Isaiah found at Qumran, the Great Isaiah Scroll (1Q1Isa) in 34:14 renders the creature as plural liliyyot (or liliyyoth).[36][37]

Eberhard Schrader (1875)[38] and Moritz Abraham Levy (1885)[39] suggest that Lilith was a goddess of the night, known also by the Jewish exiles in Babylon. Schrader and Levy's view is therefore partly dependent on a later dating of Deutero-Isaiah to the 6th century BC, and the presence of Jews in Babylon which would coincide with the possible references to the Līlītu in Babylonian demonology. However, this view is challenged by some modern research such as by Judit M. Blair (2009) who considers that the context indicates unclean animals.


Dead Sea Scrolls[edit]

The Dead Sea Scrolls contain one indisputable reference to Lilith in Songs of the Sage (4Q510-511)[44] fragment 1:

And I, the Instructor, proclaim His glorious splendour so as to frighten and to te[rrify] all the spirits of the destroying angels, spirits of the bastards, demons, Lilith, howlers, and [desert dwellers…] and those which fall upon men without warning to lead them astray from a spirit of understanding and to make their heart and their […] desolate during the present dominion of wickedness and predetermined time of humiliations for the sons of lig[ht], by the guilt of the ages of [those] smitten by iniquity – not for eternal destruction, [bu]t for an era of humiliation for transgression.[45]

As with the Massoretic Text of Isaiah 34:14, and therefore unlike the plural liliyyot (or liliyyoth) in the Isaiah scroll 34:14, lilit in 4Q510 is singular, this liturgical text both cautions against the presence of supernatural malevolence and assumes familiarity with Lilith; distinct from the biblical text, however, this passage does not function under any socio-political agenda, but instead serves in the same capacity as An Exorcism (4Q560) and Songs to Disperse Demons (11Q11).[citation needed] The text is thus, to a community "deeply involved in the realm of demonology",[46]an exorcism hymn.

Joseph M. Baumgarten (1991) identified the unnamed woman of The Seductress (4Q184) as related to female demon.[47] However, John J. Collins[48] regards this identification as "intriguing" but that it is "safe to say" that (4Q184) is based on the strange woman of Proverbs 2, 5, 7, 9:







The Earth Without the Moon

The period when the Earth was Moonless is probably the most remote recollection of mankind. Democritus and Anaxagoras taught that there was a time when the Earth was without the Moon.(1) Aristotle wrote that Arcadia in Greece, before being inhabited by the Hellenes, had a population of Pelasgians, and that these aborigines occupied the land already before there was a moon in the sky above the Earth; for this reason they were called Proselenes.(2)

Apollonius of Rhodes mentioned the time “when not all the orbs were yet in the heavens, before the Danai and Deukalion races came into existence, and only the Arcadians lived, of whom it is said that they dwelt on mountains and fed on acorns, before there was a moon.” (3)

Plutarch wrote in The Roman Questions: “There were Arcadians of Evander’s following, the so-called pre-Lunar people.”(4) Similarly wrote Ovid: “The Arcadians are said to have possessed their land before the birth of Jove, and the folk is older than the Moon.” (5) Hippolytus refers to a legend that “Arcadia brought forth Pelasgus, of greater antiquity than the moon.”(6) Lucian in his Astrology says that “the Arcadians affirm in their folly that they are older than the moon.”(7)

Censorinus also alludes to the time in the past when there was no moon in the sky.(8)

Some allusions to the time before there was a Moon may be found also in the Scriptures. In Job 25:5 the grandeur of the Lord who “Makes peace in the heights” is praised and the time is mentioned “before [there was] a moon and it did not shine.” Also in Psalm 72:5 it is said: “Thou wast feared since [the time of] the sun and before [the time of] the moon, a generation of generations.” A “generation of generations” means a very long time. Of course, it is of no use to counter this psalm with the myth of the first chapter of Genesis, a tale brought down from exotic and later sources.

The memory of a world without a moon lives in oral tradition among the Indians. The Indians of the Bogota highlands in the eastern Cordilleras of Colombia relate some of their tribal reminiscences to the time before there was a moon. “In the earliest times, when the moon was not yet in the heavens,” say the tribesmen of Chibchas.(9)

There are currently three theories of the origin of the moon:

1) The Moon originated at the same time as the Earth, being formed substantially from the same material, aggregating and solidifying.

2) The Moon was formed not in the vicinity of the Earth, but in a different part of the solar system, and was later captured by the Earth.

3) The Moon was originally a portion of the terrestrial crust and was torn out, leaving behind the bed of the Pacific.

All three theories claim the presence of the Moon on an orbit around the Earth for billions of years. Mythology may supply each of these views with some support (Genesis I for the first view; the birth of Aphrodite from the sea for the third view; Aphrodite’s origin in the disruption of Uranus, and also the violence of Sin—the Babylonian Moon—seems to support the second view).

Since mankind on both sides of the Atlantic preserved the memory of a time when the Earth was without the Moon, the first hypothesis, namely, of the Moon originating simultaneously with the Earth and in its vicinity, is to be excluded, leaving the other two hypotheses to compete between themselves.

We have seen that the traditions of diverse peoples offer corroborative testimony to the effect that in a very early age, but still in the memory of mankind, no moon accompanied the Earth.(10) Since human beings already peopled the Earth, it is improbable that the Moon sprang from it: there must have existed a solid lithosphere, not a liquid earth. Thus while I do not claim to know the origin of the Moon, I find it more probable that the Moon was captured by the Earth. Such an event would have occurred as a catastrophe.(11) If the Moon’s formation took place away from the Earth,(12) its composition may be quite different.

There is no evidence to suggest whether the Moon was a planet, a satellite of another planet, or a comet at the time of its capture by the Earth. Whatever atmosphere it may have had(13) was pulled away by the Earth, by other contacting bodies, or dissipated in some other way.

Since the time the Moon began to accompany the Earth, it underwent the influence of contacts with comets and planets that passed near the Earth in subsequent ages. The mass of the Moon being less than that of the Earth, the Moon must have suffered greater disturbances in cosmic contacts. During these contacts the Moon was not carried away: this is due to the fact that no body more powerful than the Earth came sufficiently close to the Moon to take it away from the Earth for good; but in the contacts that took place the Moon was removed repeatedly from one orbit to another.

The variations in the position of the Moon can be read in the variations in the length of the month. The length of the month repeatedly changed in subseqent catastrophic events—and for this there exists a large amount of supporting evidence. In these later occurrences the Moon played a passive role, and Zeus in the Iliad advised it (Aphrodite) to stay out of the battle in which Athene and Ares (Venus and Mars) were the main contestants.


References

  1. Hippolytus, Refutatio Omnium Haeresium V. ii.

  2. Aristotle, fr. 591 (ed. V. Rose [Teubner:Tuebingen, 1886] ). Cf.Pauly’s Realencyclopaedie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft,article “Mond” ; H. Roscher, Lexicon d. griech. und roemisch. Mythologie, article “Proselenes.”

  3. Argonautica IV.264.

  4. Plutarch, Moralia, transl. by F. C. Babbit, sect. 76.

  5. Fasti, transl. by Sir J. Frazer, II. 290.

  6. Refutatio Omnium Haeresium V. ii.

  7. Lucian, Astrology, transl. by A. M. Harmon (1936), p. 367, par. 26.

  8. Liber de die natali 19; also scholium on Aristophanes’ Clouds, line 398.

  9. A. von Humboldt, Vues des Cordillères (1816), English transl.:Researches Concerning the Institutions and Monuments of the Ancient Inhabitants of America, (1814), vol. I, p. 87; cf. H. Fischer,In mondener Welt (1930), p. 145.