Artistic Metamorphosis 

Fada Legend 

Spiritual Awakening 

an awakening .
2. the act of awaking from sleep.
3. a revival of interest or attention.
4. a recognition, realization, or coming into awareness of something:

5. a renewal of interest in religion, especially in a community; a revival

Magical, paradigm-shifting, terrifying, and awe-inspiring, the spiritual awakening process is at the core of every human's quest for freedom, love, and happiness. 

It’s a sign of the times that the word “awakened” has made it into the urban dictionary, where it is defined as “spiritually aware of the universe and [its] direct metaphysical connection to one’s own being and the connection it has to all life forces.” It is so mainstream, in fact, that political candidate Marianne Williamson has made part of her platform a call for “moral and spiritual awakening.”

One of the problems with the idea of a spiritual awakening, however, is the lack of a clear definition. What exactly is a spiritual awakening, and is there a way you can tell if you are having one?

According to Deepak Chopra, awakening happens when you are no longer living in a dream world where you filter everything through your ego and focusing on the future and the past. Instead, you have an almost simultaneous awareness of your individual self and the connection between that and everything else.

Take, for example, the metaphor of a wave in the ocean. You are the wave, and you are the ocean. The ability to maintain both separation and connection seems to indicate a different level of spiritual evolution.

When you look across faith traditions, there is a common thread that describes this state as nirvana, enlightenment, or awakening. This consciousness happens when you stop being the observer, and instead you ask yourself, who is observing?

For example, think about being engrossed in a movie—your emotions and physiology behave as though you are in deep space with Luke Skywalker or with Dorothy when she stands up to the Wicked Witch. In that moment, the experience of the movie feels real—your heart races, you feel excited, scared, or hopeful. Then your phone rings or the person behind you coughs loudly, and you are brought back to a different reality: you are sitting in a movie theatre sharing the experience of space travel or yellow brick roads with others.

Examples of Awakened People

When asked to think of awakened people, names like Mahatma Gandhi, Buddha, and Jesus come to mind. Or perhaps Mother Teresa or Nelson Mandela. These inspiring figures might lead you to believe that being awakened is akin to being perfect. If so, try to think of more relatable examples of individuals who are awake. It helps to see examples of people who are simultaneously flawed but striving to live a good life with a focus on the greater good.

A few that come to mind are:

  • Russell Brand, who seems to model a strange contradiction of constantly questioning and striving for more knowledge with bathroom humor.
  • Jim Carrey, whose comedic genius helped him to see through the illusion of celebrity and detach from any need for fame.
  • Oprah Winfrey, who brought Eckhart Tolle to the masses and who uses her SuperSoul Sunday as a way to spread enlightenment to her millions of viewers, but also has a less enlightened fixation on her weight.

People who model being spiritually awake but not perfect are what is needed to make being awakened feel possible.
So now that you have a few examples of awakened people, let’s focus on how you can tell whether or not you are having an awakening. The following are 10 signs of spiritual awakening.

1. Observing Your Patterns

One of the first signs of awakening is noticing. You may be going through life on autopilot without giving much thought to who you are, what you want, and why you are here. Having these questions pop up is like turning on a light in a previously dark room. If you are aware that you are witnessing how you do life, you may be asking yourself:

  • Do I really need to drink so much?
  • Why do I get angry so often?
  • Why am I always comparing myself to others?
  • Why can’t I get out of bed when my alarm goes off?
  • Do I really need this much red meat in my diet?
  • Why do I attract so much drama?

The first step in growth is always the awareness of the present moment followed by an impulse to change something.

2. Feeling a Sense of Connection

Connection comes from shared humanity. This can occur when:

  • You find yourself taking interest in your community. This can include volunteering at your local food bank or shoveling your neighbor’s walkway.
  • You try on the perspective of someone whom you have previously seen as different. Perhaps, you start asking why they wear a burka or have tattoos rather than judging them.
  • You have a heightened awareness of the creatures you share the planet with. You might decide to stop eating meat or you might catch yourself trapping flies and spiders rather than killing them.
  • You have a connection to the planet. This may come as a realization that littering, using plastics, or wasting food is no longer an acceptable personal practice.
3. Letting Go of Attachment

Whether you are aware of it or not, you have attachments. Attachments are how you define yourself. You may define yourself by the car you drive, the shoes you wear, what you eat, who you spend time with, who you vote for, what you read, and how you spend your money.

Think about your true self as your pulse. Over the years, you take on beliefs or descriptions about yourself based on what your parents, your friends, the media, and even science tells you. Look at each belief as a veil.

  • I’m smart.
  • I’m popular.
  • I’m a cat lover.
  • I’m vegan.
  • I’m a yogi.
  • I’m always late.
  • I can’t eat gluten.

Every layer is another bit of fabric. Once you become aware of the veil, it becomes transparent. Still there but you can see right through it.

4. Finding Inner Peace

Think of inner peace as being unflappable. It doesn’t mean that things don’t go wrong in your life, it just means that when things do go badly, you aren’t on an emotional roller coaster of anger, frustration, or despair.

The Dalai Lama describes inner peace like stubbing his toe—he still experiences an emotional charge, but it is fleeting. Inner peace is like a magnifier of positive emotions and a wet blanket over negative ones.

Find inner peace 24/7. Download the Chopra App for personalized well-being guidance you can access whenever you need it.

5. Increasing Your Intuition

Have you ever thought of an old friend from high school only to run into them in an airport the next day? Have you ever heard your phone ring and known it was your mother before looking? Have you ever felt an immediate and irrational dislike for someone or experienced the feeling when first meeting someone that you already know them?

These are all signs of intuition. If thoughts, objects, and individuals all have energy, spiritually awoken human beings seem more apt to connect with this energy on a regular basis.

6. Having Synchronicity

Along the same lines as intuition, there is that feeling that the universe is conspiring to make something happen. Your new neighbor has a San Diego license plate, and your barber mentions they were just in San Diego last weekend, then you turn on the TV and a San Diego tourism advertisement is playing. Some might call this coincidence, but others believe that these subtle signs are guiding you.

I once registered for a conference that I wasn’t really sure I could afford only to make a connection with two business leaders I had admired for years. Ultimately, this led me to a fabulous new contract and some connections I could have never made if I had not registered. If a single act has triggered a chain of events that feel like destiny, you just might be awakening!

7. Increasing Your Compassion

Empathy is your ability to feel what others are feeling, to try on a new perspective. Compassion is an action that is inspired by your empathy. It literally means “to suffer with.” People who are in the process of a spiritual awakening begin to notice both a more all-encompassing empathy and a more action-oriented compassion that feels normal, natural, and fulfilling.

One area of compassion that is often forgotten is self-compassion. According to Kristin Neff, self-compassion researcher, self-compassion is composed of three main components:

  • Self-kindness
  • A sense of common humanity
  • Mindfulness

If you are experiencing the above components, you are on the path toward spiritual awakening.

8. Removing Fear of Death

A wise teacher, Barry (Bears) Kaufman, once said that all fear is really a fear of death. All fear decreases generally as an individual becomes more awakened. This might be due to the lack of attachment. Your own demise seems less tragic when you focus on living in the present and stop worrying so much about the future or regretting the past. When consciousness is seen as transcending a physical body, the loss of this body feels less tragic. Seeing death as inevitable, as part of your process, allows for peace and removes fear.

9. Increasing Authenticity

With an awakening comes confidence and a deep sense of self-worth. Gone is the need to conform to cultural norms or remain politically correct. Instead, a real complete sense of satisfaction with who you are and the choices you make abounds.

Although many awakened people are influencers, they don’t aspire to have followers. People like Jay Shetty and Eckhart Tolle have massive followings because of how they show up in this world, not because they know a magical Instagram algorithm. The act of being themselves is one of their most appealing traits. With the recognition that it is not their job to please others, to avoid stating unpopular opinions, or to tread gently around the way others choose to feel comes an energy that is attractive and feels secure to be around.

10. Flourishing

Awakened people have a level of well-being that seems to be more consistent. You know that there is a mind-body connection, which translates to people who are happier are also healthier.

It is interesting to note that research in the field of positive psychology is very similar to studies of awakened individuals. In positive psychology, the domains of the theoretical model of happiness called PERMA (positive emotions, engagement, relationships, meaning, and accomplishments) are all strengths of the awakened. Likewise, one researcher, Sonya Lyubomirsky, found a deep connection between happiness and success across multiple life domains, including marriage, friendship, income, work performance, and health. In science, this is known as flourishing.

Practices to Assist in Your Spiritual Awakening

For those of you reading this and feeling like you have had hints of awakening but want to open yourself fully to its potential, here are some recommended activities:

  • Meditate
  • Spend time outside
  • Laugh
  • Dance
  • Connect with your community
  • Volunteer
  • Practice gratitude
  • Slow down

As Eckhart Tolle says, “You find peace not by rearranging the circumstances of your life, but by realizing who you are at the deepest level.”
Spend time focused on becoming yourself fully.


Although the concept of indigo children originated in the 1970’s, there have been groups of individuals all through the ages whose mission and purpose have been to awaken humanity.

If you’re an old soul who feels a strong and profound urge to create change in society, you are likely an indigo child.


Also referred to as a crystal or star child, an indigo child is a person who has come into this world destined to create change and spiritually awaken humanity. Indigo children are considered to be freethinkers with profound insight into the human condition and an ability to see the truth clearly. As spiritually gifted old souls, indigo children find it hard to fit into mainstream society and often become misunderstood, rejected, or misdiagnosed and medicated. The indigo child is also thought to possess strong intuition and varying spiritual gifts such as the ability to communicate with spirit guides or see visions.


The primary role of the indigo child seems to revolve around exposing truth and deception. From a young age, indigo children are able to see through the illusions, half-truths, and falsehood rife in society. To their parents and teachers, they may seem like overly inquisitive, headstrong, and even obnoxious children. As precocious truth tellers, child and adult indigos can’t help but see through the bullshit facades of other people and expose them. This desire to bring the truth to light seems to be written into the indigo child’s DNA.

Enlightened teacher Jiddu Krishnamurti sums up the indigo child’s philosophy when he writes,

It is no measure of health to be well adjusted to a profoundly sick society.

Many people criticize the indigo child concept as being one that can be misused by parents seeking to make their children look special, particularly if they have special needs. Others claim that signs of being an indigo child are so vague they can apply to anyone (this is called the Forer effect).

While it is true that the indigo child label can be misused, just as any label can, the true signs of an indigo child are so specific that they cannot be widely applied to every person. As I just mentioned above, indigo children are obsessed with finding the truth – this cannot be said of every person or every child. Every rule, belief, structure, and institution will be questioned and ruthlessly challenged by the indigo child – this trait is truly unusual and extraordinary.

It is also common for people to criticize the indigo child label as being delusional. While all labels and concepts used to describe the ego are illusory constructs of the mind, finding a sense of affinity with the indigo child label is extremely beneficial. Identifying with this label helps us to develop self-understanding and acceptance, which are important elements of spiritual growth.


It is common for the indigo child to be misdiagnosed with behavioral issues such as ADD, ADHD, and other mood disorders. Because of their headstrong and freethinking nature, such children are often feared, misunderstood, and therefore medicated at young ages. Unfortunately, medications such as Ritalin and Adderall often end up numbing the indigo child and causing them to lose contact with their intuitive capacities and truth-seeking nature.

Are you an indigo child? Perhaps your children are indigos? Below I have included a list of seventeen authentic signs.

I have omitted typical signs often mentioned on other websites like “sense of entitlement” and “feeling special and like you should be revered” because these, to me, represent narcissism or unhealthy parenting styles more than genuine indigo child signs.

If you possess more than half of these traits, you’re likely an indigo child:


You are a passionate person who will do anything it takes to accomplish your goals or dreams. Even if other people criticize or don’t support you, you still keep going no matter what.


You feel as though you’ve lived many lifetimes, and possess a wisdom that others your age don’t yet have. As a child, you may have behaved like an old man or woman, and as an adult, you have a deeply spiritual and philosophical outlook on life.


No idea or belief is too holy for you to dissect or reject. You prefer to think for yourself rather than blindly following the crowd. As an indigo child, questioning is everything to you.


As a child or teenager, you may have been thought of as “naughty,” “obnoxious,” disobedient, and contrarian. As an adult, you still cannot stand being boxed in or controlled by others. As a headstrong nonconformist, you prefer to find your own truth and forge your own path.


Truth, to you, is of primary importance. You are always seeking to distinguish truth and reality from lies and deception. When you are around others, you can immediately tell when someone is lying or hiding something. Although the truth hurts, you honor it above all else. You would prefer to suffer from the truth than be happy believing lies.


You can see and understand things about humanity and life that most other people don’t perceive. Your keen perception allows you to discover the truth about the human condition, and how to ultimately help.


Your keen perception also makes you highly intuitive. You can often intuit the best course of action as well as know things about others that are secret or hidden.


Deep in your heart, you feel a driving force to create positive change on this planet. As an indigo child, you know that your destiny is to be a paradigm changer/destroyer. This strong sense of purpose forms the axis of your decisions. Whatever is not aligned with your inner sense of purpose quickly dissolves in favor of soul-based decisions.


You care so much about this planet and other people that it often hurts. Every time you see or hear of violence, destruction, and cruelty, you feel sorrow and anger. Your high level of empathy and compassion means that you often struggle with anxiety or depression.


Since you were little, you’ve always gravitated towards leadership. You may find it hard to work in teams or for other people and function better when you’re in charge or working for yourself. You find it difficult to obey authority, particularly when that authority is corrupt, illogical or outdated. You want to offer better, wiser, and healthier ways to live life, making you destined to be a spiritual elder.


You have high expectations for yourself and other people. While idealism can be a positive trait, it can also carry disadvantages such as being overly critical or demanding. Nonetheless, your idealism is what helps you to strive for the highest and do the absolute best you can for the planet.


As a free spirit, you don’t like to be held down by anyone or anything. You find it difficult to be around too many people at once, and often prefer to spend time in your own company. As a lover of autonomy, you enjoy solitude and the insight it can bring.


Your nonconformist brain loves to express itself through art and creativity. Whether it be drawing, dancing, singing, building, painting, writing or crafting, you love creative self-expression.


As an empathic and compassionate person, you gravitate towards the natural world. You feel most at home when you’re near the ocean or surrounded by trees and animals. Nature is so pure and grounding that you find it a welcome break from the pretension of humanity.


To you, spirituality is falling in love with the message, and religion is loving the messenger. As an indigo child, you are drawn towards truth in its purest form – not diluted by dogma or fundamentalist teachings.


Because of your sharp and inquisitive mind, you tend to struggle with routine and conventional structures. As a result of your tendency to get bored easily, you may have been misdiagnosed with ADD or ADHD as a child.


Existential anxiety and depression go far beyond usual anxiety and depression, and this is because it is more concerned with life itself than the self. As an indigo child, you tend to ask questions such as “Why do we suffer?” “What is the meaning of life?” “Why is there injustice?” “Why was I born?” Such deep philosophical questions cause you to lose interest in the meaningless pursuits carried out by the majority of humanity.

Other potential traits of indigo children include:

  • Tendency towards addiction to numb feelings
  • Seeking only loyal friendships
  • Proud/bossy
  • Fiery tempered
  • More sensitive to environmental and food pollutants
  • Spiritual gifts such as clairvoyance or telepathy

Indigo children are here to provoke change in a time where conscious growth is more desperately needed than ever.

If you have discovered that you’re an indigo child, you might benefit from the following tips:

  • To stay grounded, try practicing mindful breathing.
  • Practice meditation each day.
  • Practice emotional acceptance.
  • Familiarize yourself with the spiritual awakening process and how it is linked to existential depression.
  • Creatively express yourself and your visionary ideas. You may even like to try practices such as automatic writing to help you get in touch with your Soul.
  • Regularly spend time in nature to unwind and regain balance.

Finally, if you’re still uncertain about whether you’re an indigo child or not, you can take our free indigo child test.


If you are familiar with studies and practices of yoga and meditation, or are rehearsed in the philosophies of ancient cultures, the concept that each living organism is constructed of several layers of being is not likely all too foreign. For example, the profound teachings of Kundalini yoga honor the existence of the Ten Bodies: the physical body, three mental bodies, and six energy bodies, while Ancient Egyptians believed that the physical body served as a temporary home for ka, or eternal life force, and the ba, also known as the soul. Though variation in name, form, and spiritual meaning of said layers differentiate widely, a common thread woven through beliefs surrounding sheaths of being appears to be that these layers can in fact be separated, whether it be by force or by choice, during an out of body experience.


Out of body experiences, otherwise known as OBE, are typically siloed into several often talked about phenomenon categories such as near death experiences where people report leaving their bodies and returning in moments of trauma, illness, or otherwise, lucid dreaming (or the awareness that one is dreaming while doing so), and clairvoyance(the ability to gain information by way of sensory powers beyond touch, ordinary sight, and other senses), but include other incidences beyond description as well.


Astral projection is certainly a more powerful and one of the most mystifying forms of OBE, during which one’s soul separates from the physical body and traverses the astral plane with the utmost intention. By leaving the physical body, the astral, or subtle body, can hover and observe a practicioner’s environment, or traverse across the globe and beyond spans of time to wherever intuition seeks. Those practicing astral projection are extremely aware of the extraction of their consciousness from their physical form, as well as the restoration process of bringing one’s soul back to its body. Over the course of time, several successful astral projection methods have revealed, and have revealed themselves as being safe and effective.



Bob Monroe, founder of the leading research organization in the field of human consciousness called The Monroe Institute, penned a body of work titled “Journeys Out of the Body” in 1971 in which he provides a detailed outline for how to astrally project one’s self in seven steps:

  • Step 1: Relax, both physically and mentally.
  • Step 2: Enter a hypnagogic state, or half-sleep.
  • Step 3: Deepen the state by prioritizing mental sensation over physical sensation.
  • Step 4: Pay attention to the presence of vibration in your environment, which becomes apparent in a state of deep attention.
  • Step 5: Incur the vibration in your physical body, and relax into its presence. The purpose of this is to gently jiggle the subtle body out of the physical body.
  • Step 6: Focus your thoughts on leaving the limbs and the torso, and try to do so one at a time.
  • Step 7: Known as “lifting out,” focus on effortlessly drifting out of your physical body.

Another method called The Rope Technique, was made known by Robert Bruce, founder of the Astral Dynamics movement, and is regarded as being one of the most accessible astral projection modalities. Mahima Rao, metaphysical and consciousness devotee, creates modern “how-to” guides for those wishing to attempt astral projection and other forms of energetic exploration, and maps out the general process in a few steps:

Step 1: Relax the physical body by visualizing each muscle. Step 2: From your space of relaxation, enter a vibrational states; this should feel like an amplified version of a cell phone’s vibration mode pulsations coursing through the body. Step 3: Imagine a rope hanging above you. Step 4: Using the astral, or subtle, body, attempt to hold on to the rope with both hands. The physical body remains completely relaxed. Step 5: Begin to climb the rope, hand over hand, all the while visualizing reaching the ceiling above you. Step 6: Once you are aware of your full exit of the physical body, you are able to explore the astral plane.


Though astral projection techniques are seemingly quite formulaic, much like the practice of remote viewing, seasoned patrons encourage those new to astral travel to carry out their own research and personal investigation to ensure high-quality experiences and the establishment of intentionality. The understanding of associated nuances and the amount of patience required are paramount for learning how to astral project properly. Once the proper competency has been obtained, astral projection offers those practicing the ability to connect with those living and deceased, and to “see the bigger picture” by viewing one’s own environment and circumstances from a new perspective.


third eye (also called the mind's eye, or inner eye) is a mystical and esoteric concept of a speculative invisible eye which provides perception beyond ordinary sight.[1]

In certain dharmic spiritual traditions such as , the third eye refers to the ajna, or brow, chakra.[2] The third eye refers to the gate that leads to inner realms and spaces of higher consciousness. In New Age spirituality, the third eye often symbolizes a state of enlightenment or the evocation of mental images having deeply personal spiritual or psychological significance. The third eye is often associated with religious visions, clairvoyance, the ability to observe chakras and auras,[3] precognition, and out-of-body experiences. People who are claimed to have the capacity to utilize their third eyes are sometimes known as seers. In some traditions such as Hinduism, the third eye is said to be located around the middle of the forehead, slightly above the junction of the eyebrows.

In Taoism and many traditional Chinese religious sects such as Chan (called Zen in Japanese), "third eye training" involves focusing attention on the point between the eyebrows with the eyes closed, and while the body is in various qigong postures. The goal of this training is to allow students to tune into the correct "vibration" of the universe and gain a solid foundation on which to reach more advanced meditation levels. Taoism teaches that the third eye, also called the mind's eye, is situated between the two physical eyes, and expands up to the middle of the forehead when opened. Taoism claims that the third eye is one of the main energy centers of the body located at the sixth Chakra, forming a part of the main meridian, the line separating left and right hemispheres of the body.[4] In Taoist alchemical traditions, the third eye is the frontal part of the "Upper Dan Tien" (upper cinnabar field) and is given the evocative name "muddy pellet".

According to the Christian teaching of Father Richard Rohr, the concept of the third eye is a metaphor for non-dualistic thinking; the way the mystics see. In Rohr's concept, mystics employ the first eye (sensory input such as sight) and the second eye (the eye of reason, meditation, and reflection), "but they know not to confuse knowledge with depth, or mere correct information with the transformation of consciousness itself. The mystical gaze builds upon the first two eyes—and yet goes further." Rohr refers to this level of awareness as "having the mind of Christ".[5]

Physical basis[edit]

The biological foundation of the mind's eye is not fully understood. Studies using fMRI have shown that the lateral geniculate nucleus and the V1 area of the visual cortex are activated during mental imagery tasks.[6] Ratey writes:

The visual pathway is not a one-way street. Higher areas of the brain can also send visual input back to neurons in lower areas of the visual cortex. [...] As humans, we have the ability to see with the mind's eye – to have a perceptual experience in the absence of visual input. For example, PET scans have shown that when subjects, seated in a room, imagine they are at their front door starting to walk either to the left or right, activation begins in the visual association cortex, the parietal cortex, and the prefrontal cortex - all higher cognitive processing centers of the brain.[7]

The rudiments of a biological basis for the mind's eye is found in the deeper portions of the brain below the neocortex, or where the center of perception exists. The thalamus has been found to be discrete to other components in that it processes all forms of perceptional data relayed from both lower and higher components of the brain. Damage to this component can produce permanent perceptual damage, however when damage is inflicted upon the cerebral cortex, the brain adapts to neuroplasticity to amend any occlusions for perception. It can be thought that the neocortex is a sophisticated memory storage warehouse in which data received as an input from sensory systems are compartmentalized via the cerebral cortex. This would essentially allow for shapes to be identified, although given the lack of filtering input produced internally, one may as a consequence, hallucinate - essentially seeing something that isn't received as an input externally but rather internal (i.e. an error in the filtering of segmented sensory data from the cerebral cortex may result in one seeing, feeling, hearing or experiencing something that is inconsistent with reality).

Not all people have the same internal perceptual ability. For many, when the eyes are closed, the perception of darkness prevails. However, some people are able to perceive colorful, dynamic imagery. The use of hallucinogenic drugs increases the subject's ability to consciously access visual (and auditory, and other sense) percepts. The Mental Imagery article goes into more detail.

Furthermore, the pineal gland is a hypothetical candidate for producing a mind's eye; Rick Strassman and others have postulated that during near-death experiences (NDEs) and dreaming, the gland might secrete a hallucinogenic chemical N,N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT) to produce internal visuals when external sensory data is occluded.[8] However, this hypothesis has yet to be fully supported with neurochemical evidence and plausible mechanism for DMT production.

The hypothesized condition where a person lacks a mind's eye is called aphantasia. The term was first suggested in a 2015 study.[9]

Pineal gland[edit]

In Theosophy it is related to the pineal gland.[10] According to this belief, humans had in far ancient times an actual third eye in the back of the head with a physical and spiritual function. Over time, as humans evolved, this eye atrophied and sunk into what today is known as the pineal gland.[10] Dr. Rick Strassman has hypothesized that the pineal gland, which maintains light sensitivity, is responsible for the production and release of DMT (dimethyltryptamine), an entheogen which he believes possibly could be excreted in large quantities at the moments of birth and death.[11]

Adherents of theosophist H.P. Blavatsky[12] have suggested that the third eye is in fact the partially dormant pineal gland, which resides between the two hemispheres of the brain. Reptiles and amphibians sense light via a third parietal eye—a structure associated with the pineal gland—which serves to regulate their circadian rhythms, and for navigation, as it can sense the polarization of light. C.W. Leadbeater claimed that by extending an "etheric tube" from the third eye, it is possible to develop microscopic and telescopic vision.[3] It has been asserted by Stephen Phillips that the third eye's microscopic vision is capable of observing objects as small as quarks.[13]


The use of the phrase mind's eye does not imply that there is a single or unitary place in the mind or brain where visual consciousness occurs. Philosophers such as Daniel Dennett have critiqued this view.[14] However, others, such as Johnjoe McFadden of the University of Surrey in the United Kingdom and the New Zealand-based neurobiologist Susan Pockett, propose that the brain's electromagnetic field is consciousness itself, thus causing the perception of a unitary location.[15][16]